Unit One : Stories of the Supernatural
The Recurring Dream – A Story from England
The story starts with a description of Kimberly Clark, who is the main character of this story. She is twenty five years old with all qualities of a normal young woman. She is pretty, she loves to dance, she has many friends and a good position in the office of a large company. Despite these all qualities, she has a problem. The problem is she has been troubled by a strange and mysterious dream that haunts her every night.The strange dream always begins on a country road. Kim stands on this road and sees a lane with a white fence and a hedge on each side. At the end of the lane, on the top of a little hill, she sees a small white cottage with green shutters. Then she walks up the lane to the house, goes in and looks around. In one of the rooms, she finds a man asleep in bed. He is a little old man with white hair and a white beard. When she comes near his bed, the man wakes up. Then he sits up and looks at her. When she tries to speak with him, she wakes up. She is very surprised and troubled by the dream because she has never known any little old man like that and neither the place.
Kim’s roommate knows everything. So that one day she proposes Kim to visit her (Janet’s) parents’ farm house to feel peace in mind. As they pass through a country road, Kim sees the similar scene which she sees in her dream. They stop there. Janet does not want Kim to go and see the small cottage but Kim goes.The house was exactly the same, except for a sign in front of the house which said ‘FOR SALE’. Unlike her dream, Kim goes to the door of the house and knocks, the same old man answers the door who immediately closes the door. After Kim’s request, he opens the door. Kim again asks why the house is for sale. The old man says that the house is haunted by a ghost. Kim tries hard to think to say something instead asks who the ghost is. The old man gets surprised and shocks her by replying that she herself is the ghost.
1. Write about a dream that you have seen recently.
Ans: Yesterday I saw a terrible dream about a ghost. In my dream I found myself sitting with my friends in the jungle. When I was a little away from my friends, I saw a ghost dancing around me. It was telling me that I was going to be killed. In my dream, I cried so badly. I was asking for a help. My friends did not listen to me what I was saying. I fell in a critical condition. I thought I had to kill the ghost. Then, the fight began between me and the ghost. The ghost had had very sharp claws and redred eyes. It was so furious so I was. I tried to thrash it on the stone. Fortunately, I succeeded on my own and the ghost was thrown into the river nearby. Finally, I went to my friends who were looking at me. They asked me how the fight was like. I also narrated the event as it was happened. The next day, the result of my dream came true. I got the first division in exam.
2. Do dream have any connection to our real life? Discuss your personal view. Also relate to the story. “The Recurring Dreams.”
Ans: Of course, dreams have connection to our real life. I have got such experience in my life. Once I saw my friend Mohan fallen down from a tree in my dream. After few days, I heard the news that he met an accident. He was rushed to the hospital. His condition became worse. His hands and legs were broken and ultimately died.3. Why do some people have recurring dreams? Give your opinion.
Ans: Many people have their dreams at night. We have also got some experiences of dreams. In our dreams sometimes we see ghosts, wild animals, great buildings, juggles, death person, friends etc. In my opinion we see these persons, animals, things because of our unsatisfied desires. We have experienced that what we desire in a daytime, occurs in our dream at night. So desire of getting something might be the cause of recurring dream. In the same way sometimes we see same dream day by day. We have experienced the fact that we fail in our exam in the dream if we are waiting for exam result. So fear might be the cause of dream.
4. Why does Janet want to take Kim to her parent’s farm for a few days?
Ans: Janet wants to take her friend to her parents’ farm because Kim had a problem of recurring dream. She used to see the same old man and the white house in her dream. Kim tried to speak to that old man in her dream but suddenly woke up from her dream. This happened daily. Her friend, Janet wanted to take Kim to her parent’s farm so that Kim will feel easy and forget that recurring dream. So Janet takes Kim to her own parents’ farm for a few days.
5. Do dreams have any connection to our real life? Discuss your personal view.
Dreams are mental picture or vision that we experience when we are asleep. Psychologists claim that dreams are the means of wish fulfillment and the outlets of repressed desires. What man cannot get in real life, they try to obtain in dreams. Dreams are directly related to person’s psychology. A child dreams of sweets, foods and play. Similarly, adults dream of sex, money etc. A sick man will see himself dying in dreams because he is afraid of death. Thus, in my view, there is connection between dreams and real life. People have recurring dreams when they have great desire for something or fear something. Usually frustrated or depressed people have recurring dreams.
Unit One : Stories of The Supernatural
The Lost Doll – A Story from Colombia, South America
Carmen was the only child of Roberto and Rosa Soto. She was beautiful, bright and loving child. However she was sick from the day of her birth. When she was four, she fell sick seriously and died. A few days after the funeral ceremony has been held, Rosa gave away Carmen’s playthings and clothes to a priest of another village so that she couldn’t see them time and again. She thought that she wouldn’t have another child as she was told at the time of Carmen’s birth. When Roberto knew about it, he became very unhappy because he was hopeful that they would have another child. He asked about her the little dolly which Carmen always carried with her. Rosa said that she didn’t give it away. Then they searched everywhere in the house as well asked the villagers too but they couldn’t find it.However they soon forgot about the lost doll because Rosa became pregnant. On the first anniversary of the death of Carmen, Rosa gave birth to another child. Roberto and Rosa became very happy. She was named Evangelina, which meant “good news”. When Evangelina grew up she looked very much similar to her sister Carmen. But she was healthy girl. When she was about four, she told her mother that she had been sick a long time ago. She also told her aunt that she had a little, beautiful doll with blue eyes and red dress. She had buried it under a tree in the yard. She requested her mother to dig up the doll. When Rosa dug up the ground, she found the lost doll. She looked surprised, shocked and sick because it was difficult for her to believe. Evangelina also said that when she was sick, the nice man came and helped her to bury that doll under the tree.The story presents the supernatural significance regarding its particular focus on the concept of reincarnation. When Evangelina was born and grown up, she looked very much similar to that of Carmen’s actions, characters, behaviors and other many things were very much similar. The priest said that God had taken Carmen and sent her back in the form of healthy Evangelina. Though Rosa did not believe that her newly born child as the reincarnation(rebirth) of Carmen but she could not reject the mysterious fact towards the end of the story. When Evangelina reported everything about the past and about her doll, Rosa could not say anything more.
1. How were Carmen and Evangelina alike and different? Or In what ways Mariya Del Carmen and Evangelina alike?
Ans: Evangelina was Rosa’s second daughter and Carmen was the first one. Evangelina’s actions and body structure were similar to her sister Carmen who had died after being sick. Evangelina looked as Carmen. The difference was that Carman was sick but Evangelina wasn’t sick.2. What evidences are there in the story to show that the Soto family was poor?
Ans: There are various indications in the story that suggest that the Soto family was poor. First, Soto family could not provide proper medicinal care to their sick daughter Carmen and thus she died at the age of four. Second, all of Carmen’s belongings could be kept in a small box which Rosa gave to a priest. Third, Roberto wanted to save the clothes of Carmen so that they could be used by their to-be-born child. Forth, it is mentioned that Roberto was a farmer and had rough hands.
Unit One : Stories of The Supernatural
The House Call – A Story from Germany
The story has been taken from Berlin, Germany on 26th December, 1903. The famous German surgeon, Dr. Emil Braun, was sitting alone in the dining room of his apartment and trying to write notes about the surgery while having his dinner. Soon he felt asleep but woke up when he heard the doorbell ring. He heard a child talking about her sick mother to Mrs. Braun. He went to the door and saw in the semidarkness a little girl of perhaps six or seven who was wearing a cotton dress and shabby shoes. Over her head, she had a ragged shawl which she was holding together at the neck. The doctor felt sympathy for the child and her sick mother and became ready to go with her.It was raining lightly outside as the doctor walked down the steps to the street but the girl was already almost a block up the street, waiting for him. She walked too fast, however. Stopping only for a moment at each corner to make sure he saw where she was going. The girl led the doctor through the poorest part of Berlin, the section of the city around the hospital where Dr. Braun was head surgeon. Finally they reached an old tenement house where the girl’s mother was living. The doctor climbed up stairs up to the fifth storey. As the doctor entered the room, he heard the door close softly behind him.The woman was lying in the bed. The doctor recognized her as a person who at one time worked as the maintenance staff at the hospital. She was suffering from pneumonia. When the doctor talked about the girl, daughter of the woman, Elda said that her daughter, Adelheid, had died of the flu in September just three days after her seventh birthday.The doctor was surprised. The little girl was not there. Elda told that she had kept Heide’s shoes and shawl to remind her of Heide. The doctor got up and looked. He saw the same ragged shawl on a hook and a pair of shabby shoes on the floor. As he looked closely he found them wet. Elda said that she had been thinking about him earlier that night hoping and praying for him. As she was talking she felt asleep. Then, touching her feverish head once more, he took his black bag, stepped out into the dark hallway, and closed the door.
1. Summarize the story “The House Call”
Ans: See the summary above for complete answer.2. Why did the doctor have a look of surprise on his face when Elda told him that little daughter died in September?
Ans: It was so because Elda’s little daughter had gone to Dr. Braun’s house to call him for the treatment of her sick mother. Dr. Braun had followed the same girl on the way. So, the doctor had a look of surprise.3. What did Dr. Braun discover when he went with the girl who came to house?
Ans: The doctor reached to Elda’s house. He saw that girl at the door. But Elda said that her daughter had died in September. Dr. Braun surprised when he heard this. He finally realized that he might have been called by Elda’s dead daughter’s sprit. It shows that it was a dead sprit of Elda’s daughter who haunted the door of the doctor.
Unit One : Stories of The Supernatural
Fear – The Story from Puebla, Mexico
The main character of this story is Armando Gonzalez. He had to look after a big family of nine members. He had a dream to have a house of his own. With this aim, he had saved 50,000 pesos since the last many years (20 years).On that day, he went to the bank to withdraw 50,000 pesos because he had seen a house of that money. The amount was finalized and he had to do the payment. He was very careful from the beginning. The bank was slightly crowded that day and he did not like it. In his turn, the bank cashier started to count the money loudly which Armando did not like. He feared other people would know that he was carrying a heavy amount and anybody could loot him.He caught a bus to go home. There he met a man whom he had already seen in the bank. Not only that he had dashed against him and he had given a double look at Armando Gonzalez. Here, he found the same man getting on the same bus. Now, there was no doubt to Armando that man intended to rob him. Everybody in the bus was looking at him only because he was putting his hat backwards. But, what Armando thought was that they were looking at him because they had the knowledge that he was carrying 50,000 pesos. He started to see a thief on each face. This increased his nervousness all the more.After some time, he found that the man was talking to three other boys. He thought that they were making secret plans to loot him. This increased his nervousness and he made a plan to get off the bus at next stop and to take another bus from there and he did accordingly.Suddenly, he also saw that the same three boys had got off there. Now, it was sure to Armando that it was a part of the robbery. Now, he was panic stricken. He started to run shouting for help. The three boys also started to run after him only with the intention to help him. But, there was no limit to Armando’s fear and he was running as fast as he could. Suddenly, his feet got entangled with something and he fell down. Before he got up, the three boys came up to him. Armando started to plead them not to rob him. They were also surprised at it and they said that they were not intending to loot him. They were students and they were there for a football tournament and that they were running after him because he was shouting for help.Now, his fear is gone and he got up and put his cap on and this time he put it rightly. At this time, all the four walked up slowly back to the street.
1. Summarize the story `Fear’. Or sketch character of Armando Gonzalez.
Ans: Armando Gonzalez, a poor man looked after a big family with nine members. He had a dream to have a house of his own. One day he went to withdraw his life-long earnings of 50,000 pesos from the bank. He wanted to buy a house with that money. He was nervous of the crowd in the bank. When the bank cashier counted his money loudly he was afraid that people might rob him. While returning home in the bus, he saw a man whom he had seen in the bank. The man had given him a double look. He was sure that the man had come to rob him. Since he had put his hat facing backwards, everyone stared at him. He was more puzzled. When that man started talking with three other boys, he suspected that they were making plans to loot him. He got off the bus. The three boys also got off the bus. So, he started to run shouting for help. The boys also ran after him. Suddenly he fell down. The boys came to help him. But he pleaded the boys not to rob him. The boys told him that they were not robbers but students who were there for football tournament. Hearing them he got relief from his fear and nervousness. 2. What were the things which made Armando think that someone was going to rob him?
Ans: There were so many things that made Armando think that somebody was going to rob him out. They were; a man in the bank ward and some boys in the bus looking at him etc. When Armando was at the bank, the cashier counted the money loudly. Everyone saw him withdrawing money from the bank. Next the fat man was beside him looking at him at the bank. Thirdly the fat man got on the same bus. Fourth he thought that three boys were sent by the fat man to rub him. He also found that the three boys were also following him. These things made Armando think that someone was going to rub him.3. Why is Armando afraid of the heavy man in the bus?
Ans: Armando is much afraid of the heavy man in the bus because the heavy man was looking at him and standing next to him at the bank. The heavy man also got on the same bus. Armando wanted to be free from fear of heavy man by getting off from the bus. Those three boys, who were talking with heavy man, also got off from the bus. Armando thought that these three boys might have been sent by the heavy man. He thought they might be the helper of the heavy man. So he was always afraid of the heavy man.
Unit One : Stories of The Supernatural
The Loving Mother – A Story From the Island of Hokkaido, Japan] Shoji Sakota was a pharmacist lived in the city of Sapporo on Hokkaido Island in northern Japan. He used to have his own drug store in the same building, where he used to live. He used to live alone in the rear part of the building because his wife had died several years earlier. One stormy winter night in 1964, he was working in his room at about mid night. As it was the end of the fiscal year, he was very busy with the profit, loss and the accounts of the whole year. At that time, there was a knock at his door. At first, he did not pay attention it. But the knocking repeated. At last, he opened the door thinking that somebody might have come for some very important medicine. It was a woman who wanted an ame (Japanese candy) on a stick for her baby. Mr Sakota was quite surprised at it because the lady was buying sweet at that time of night. He was very much moved or surprised by the appearance of the lady. She was so strange that her hair was disheveled, uncombed, untidy and her eyes were quite strange.In short, she looked a lady from another world. The lady went from there but Mr. Sakota could not forget her appearance and at last he left working and went to the bed. On the next night, the same woman came and both the times she asked for an ame. Mr. Sakota was more surprised. He had a friend with whom he shared his surprising activities. The friend was a photographer. So, they planned to take photos of the lady if she came the next time or next night.The next night, the lady came at the same time and with the same demand. The photographer friend was hiding in the shop and he had taken many photos of the lady from different angles. When the photographs came, they were quite surprised to find that all activities of that woman were presented in the photograph but it did not. Then the two friends decided to follow her the next time if she came.The next night also, the lady arrived at the same time and asked for an ame. When she left the shop, the two friends followed her quietly. Finally, they reached to a room in an old building. In the room, they found a baby sucking or licking an ame and the woman appeared to be sleeping there in the bed. When they tried to wake up the lady, they realized that she was dead and they felt that she had been dead for several days.The conclusion is that after her death the lady’s soul was worried about the child. She not only wanted to arrange for food for her child but she also wanted someone to come and know that she had been dead and her child was in a helpless situation.
1. Summarize the story “The Loving Mother.”
Ans: See the summary above for complete answer.2. Describe the women who visited Mr. Sakota’s pharmacy late at night.
The woman who visited Dr. Sakota was very thin and her skin was abnormally light. She was wearing a ragged Kimino and her hair was disheveled. Her eyes were mysterious. It seemed as if she was not looking at the doctor but looking through him. Moreover, she only asked ame for her child, not anything else. She came to visit doctor only at the midnight. Even the camera could not capture her image.3. Show the points of similarities and differences between the supernatural stories” A House Call” and “The Loving Mother”
Ans: Both the stories `A House Call’ and `The Loving Mother’ are the supernatural stories. In the story `The House Call’ a small girl’s spirit comes and visits doctor. Similarly in the story `The Loving Mother’ the spirit of death mother comes and visits the pharmacist. In both stories there is description of love and affection between the mother and the child. Both stories show that even after someone’s death, their spirit visits their loving members of the family. The difference is that in the story of `The House Call’ small girl visit the doctor but in the second story the mother visits the pharmacist. In the first story, the little girl requests the doctor to get to her house but in the second story, the mother asks for ame.
Unit Two : Men, Women and Children
My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold – William Wordsworth
My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold is a paradoxical poem written by W. Wordsworth, a Romantic poet of nature. The poet recollects an experience of his childhood days. He expresses his emotion and feelings in a meaningful way in the poem. He also presents the contrast between permanent and changeable nature of human being. Being a nature poet, Wordsworth glorifies nature as God and a great teacher. He says when he looks at the rainbow which symbolizes nature. He feels joy and his heart beats faster. It means he claims nature as a source of inspiration creation, and also pleasure and entertainment.Then, he remembers his previous days and says the rainbow was there when he was a child, it is still there when he is a man, and will be there when he grows old and dies. It shows that that the poem is a bit sad indirectly. Death is inevitable for the mortal but the rainbow is immortal. Generations come and go but it always appears in the sky-present, past and future. He wants to pass his days as a continuous chain showing deep respect for nature.The poet uses a controversial statement in the poem- the child is father of man. It means that from childhood begins manhood. Yesterday’s child is today’s man and today’s child is tomorrow’s man.Here, the word father shows that a child is the beginning of each person’s life. The present is the result of the past, and so the future will be naturally the result of the present. According to him, child is the past, man is the present and father is the future. The poet intends to express the timelessness of nature.
1. Explain the paradox `The Child is the father of Man.’
Ans: In this poem the poet William Wordsworth says, “ The child is the father of man”. He wants to say that present is the outcome of past. According to him, the child grows up and becomes father. Manhood is outcome of the childhood. So, the poet says this statement. This paradox might have different meaning. The poet might have said that the child is innocent. We can learn many things from the child who never lies. In reality, we try to learn from father. We can also say that a man can be younger by age but may be more matured by mind that is what the poet wants to express through this paradox.2. Why does the heart of the poet leap up when he sees a rainbow in the sky?
Ans: The poet William Wordsworth is identified as a nature loving poet. He enjoys on nature and natural things. The poet was the worshipper of the nature. He enjoys the scenic beauty of nature. He saw the same rainbow when he was a child. It is the same as in the past. It will remain the same but the poet will die soon. Here, the rainbow symbolizes the continuation in his life but it is not possible. So, his heart leaps up.
Unit Two: Men Women and Children
Speaking of Children
The essayist presents the advantages of having a child and the disadvantages of having more children. This essay speaks in favour of having one child and against having many children. According to Holland, one child is an appendage whereas more than one is a way of life because it is difficult to care and handle. One child is easy to be looked after and outnumbered. The parents can brainwash him/her, provide facilities of health, education, fooding, housing, and also other essentials means of entertainment, refreshment and technological access. They can make him/her what they want to do. There is always love and affection to each other in the family. The parents are still themselves with one child. The quality of life will be high, and the family becomes happy and peaceful. Harmony and discipline can be seen in the family members. But, plural children are a counter culture in the house. It is very difficult for the parents to care them. Even the basic needs cannot be fulfilled. There will be lacks and scarcity everywhere. The quality of life will be low. The parents become outnumbered. There is always noise, violence and interruption in work. Peace, privacy and joy of conjugal life are disturbed. The parents’ life will be limited, and they don’t get chance for personal life. They are helplessly pushed back from their own life into theirs. The family environment is disordered. Mothers of more than one child fall asleep with startling suddenness and finality. The condition of the family becomes poignant and pathetic. Sense of love and affection is less than in the family with one child. Life becomes vast and complex.The essay is conversational and so a bit dramatic as well. Holland has used fragmented sentences which indicate the interruptions from the children to the parents. The essay is remarkable for its complex style but simple theme. It examines the idea of having more than one child and the consequent expenses of parents. Through the essay, the essayist also wants to suggest us not to hold the burden having more children but to enjoy and relax having only one child.
1. How does the essay `Speaking of children’ examine the idea of having more than one child?
Ans: Having more than one child is an obstacle of happy married life. Having more than one child is a way of child i.e. parents have to change their way of life into the children’s way of life since the parents are outnumbered. The parents hardly get time for their private affair. The children always come in between. The mother of plural child gets tired and by the time she goes to bed sleep faster. So they even don’t get time to share their idea even in bed time. Moreover, your holiday plan should be changed because of plural children. The parents search for cheaper and nearby place etc.2. Does the essay speaking of children speak in favour or against having many children? Give reason.
Ans: This essay speaks implicitly against having many children. The essayist without passing her judgment examines the idea of having more than one child is the consequent expenses of parents. Barbara Holland talks about the sacrifices that the parents have to make for the sake of their children. She says that one child is just one extra thing in one’s life. They can make it do what they want to go. They can teach it nice things as they wish. In short, one child is never a nuisance. But more than one child becomes unmanageable for their parents. Even if there are only two children, they are sufficient enough to outnumber you and your husband. They almost completely deny you any time to enjoy a private chat with your husband. Barbara also tells us that parents of plural children can spare time for themselves only after they have taken the children somewhere and brought them home again. Things are never in order. Whenever you move in the house, children’s playthings come in your way. In short, with more than one child, you and your husband are never yourselves.
Unit Two: Men, Women and Children
Look At Teacup – Patricia Hampl
Look at a Teacup is a symbolic essay by Patricia Hampl, an American lady essayist. It presents the conflict between the modern and the traditional symbolized by daughter and mother. In this essay Hampl strongly raises the feminist voice refusing to carry on old traditions like marrying and bearing children.The essayist shows generation gap between the mother and the daughter through the use of teacup in the essay. The teacup is a symbol of tradition, art, culture and history itself. At the beginning of the Second World War in 1939, the writer’s mother had bought the teacup with Czechoslovakian art as a memento in her marriage. But, later, she handed it over to the daughter with the intention that she would look at the teacup, follow the tradition, get married, have children and make the future life traditionally systematic. Against her intention, the daughter reads the whole history in the cup in order to fight with traditional and brutal domination of females by males. The cup is a small uncharred finger from the midcentury bonfire. It means that everything was destroyed in the second world war-life, property, countries but the cup was unburnt. The cup is still beautiful inside. There are different types flowers-some blossomed, some still buds and some falling down. It reminds the historic Second World War in which the people were killed and the innocent women were bombarded with a plan. It is very much symbolic that the females in the past were totally dominated and exploited by the male. The females were not free and open like flowers but closed like buds. They did not have their own life and identity. Therefore, Hampl tries to unchain the females by examining and breaking the tradition and male dominated history of the women.The essayist vividly shows the misunderstanding between the mother and the daughter. For mother, family is the most important thing whereas, for, daughter, work is the most important thing.Marriage is tragedy, an end of life for the daughter but not for the mother. Mother was a housewife controlled by father but daughter wants to be an identified female not a housewife. Mother teaches daughter each and every household activity to make the family life systematic which the daughter rejects and revolts against it. It shows the conflict between the modern daughter and the patriarchal mother. In the essay, the cup holds the whole history of war and the women in the past. The falling flowers and the teacups have the artistic relation which means the falling flowers have added to the beauty of the teacup.The falling bodies and beds have the sexual relation which shows the traditional women’s compulsion to fall and get sexually exploited. In the essay, the aspects like Second World War marriage and family life, Hitler, etc are associated with thread around the central thing-teacup. The black umbrella symbolizes the colonial and imperial expansion of the powerful countries. Through the symbolic use of the teacup, Hampl wants to depict the pathetic and poignant condition of the women in the past and revolts against male chauvinism to make the life of females meaningful with self identity and freedom in the modern period refusing the mother’s request to look at the teacup and follow the tradition getting married and having children.
1. How does Hampl see herself and her mother connected by the teacup?
Ans: Hampl’s mother bought a teacup in 1939. The Second World War also started in the same year. That teacup was brought to America from Czechoslovakia before the beginning of the war. The level of tea in the cup can be seen from outside. There are thin bands of gold around the edges of the saucer and the cap. There is also a band of gold on the inner, which has been disappeared by the constant use. There is no decoration outside cup. There were flowers, later on, Hampl’s mother handed that cup to Hampl to hand over the tradition and culture of her own generation to Hampl. This is the gift given to Hampl by her mother. Hampl’s cultural values are disappearing as the bands of inner circle of the saucer and tea cup disappearing. This cup reminds Hampl about not only her mother but also the tragic destruction of the Second World War2. What do you mean by “many thing” fell that year?
Ans: Here, many things fell that year indicates the destruction that happened during the Second World War. The second war started in 1939. The falling off bombs caused much destruction. The countries were captured by their enemies. Many European innocent youths lost their lives in the battlefield. The married women who lost their husband were compelled to fall in the beds of other people. Hampl’s mother had bought a teacup from Czechoslovakia before the Second World War began. But it was also destroyed in the war. In this way art, virginity, culture, tradition, and faith in marriage fell in that year.3. How does the writer in her essay, “Look at a Tea cup” show the relationship among the falling flowers and teacups, falling bodies and beds, and falling off bombs onto women and falling countries.
Ans: The teacup about which the writer Hampl talks was brought from Czechoslovakia which was later on destroyed in the Second World War. Hampl’s mother offered that teacup to hand down her culture to her daughter but Hampl didn’t follow her mother’s culture of marrying and bearing children. The flowers inside the cup are scattered and they are falling separately. The band of gold on the inner circle is disappearing due to constant use. This indicates that the old tradition is disappearing. The Second World War began in 1930, many women lost their husband in the battlefield, and enemies compelled these widows to fall in the beds of others. Here, falling bodies and beds indicates the miserable condition of married women of that time. The Second World War made women’s future dark. The young girls were afraid of getting married. In the same way, many countries means falling of freedom, peace and their own identify after the Second World War.4. What is Hampl’s attitude to marriage?
Ans: Hampl’s mother got married in 1939 when the Second World War began. It destroyed many things. Many married women who lost their husband and family members were compelled to fall on the beds of strange persons after own husband’s death in the battlefield. The destructive Second World War caused a sense of fear in young girl’s life. The writer herself saw miserable condition of married women of that period. They lost the faith in marriage. Hampl takes `work’ as the important thing but not marriage. For writer and her generation marriage is a tragedy. 5. What does the story “Look at a Teacup” tell us about being women?Ans: Hampl says that in the generation of Hampl’s mother, there was a great faith in marriage and family relations before marriage. The traditional women wanted to hand over their tradition and culture to their daughters. They considered that women should marry for sexual relations. For them family life was greater than work. But modern women don’t follow the traditional values and work is greater than families for modern women. Marriage and family life is tragedy for Hampl’s generation.6. What does the essay “Look at a Teacup” tell us about marriage? About mother-daughter relationship? About importance of family?
Ans: The `tea cup’ about which is talking was bought from Czechoslovakia. Later on this country was destroyed in the Second World War. According to the writer, Hampl before the Second World War marriage and family life was considered a great thing. The mother used to hand over culture and their possession to their daughter. Hampl’s mother also did the same thing as other women used to do. Her mother gave her a teacup as a gift. The teacup reminds the writer her mother’s marriage, happy life, etc. they didn’t have sexual relations before marriage. This essay also tells us about the importance of happy family life before the Second World War. But during the Second World War, many married women lost their husbands and family members in the battlefield and compelled to fall in the beds of strange ones and these women cursed themselves of being women. After the Second World War, the importance of married life fell down. The Second World War caused fear in young women. Married life means to means to Hampl and Hampl’s generation is a tragedy.7. Explain “The cup is a detail, a small uncharged finger from the mid-century bonfire”.
Ans: The cup, which was offered to the writer Hampl, was brought from Czechoslovakia. It was beautiful cup with beautiful flowers inside it. In that century, Czechoslovakia was destroyed in the Second World War. The Second World War started in 1939 or in the mid-century. The married women lost their husbands as well as family members in the war. Everything was destroyed but the cup remained unaffected. Here, uncharted finger indicates that whole body or everything brunt except little finger or little tea cup in the war. The country Czechoslovakia lost its culture, tradition, identity, freedom, etc. in the war. Here, unchanged finger is the symbol art of Czechs.
Unit Two : Men, Women and Children
A Worn Path – Eudora Welty
The story “A Worn Path” is about an old black woman called Phoenix Jackson. She used to live in a village far away from the town. She had a grandson. He was very sick so she had to go to the town frequently to bring medicine for her grandson. The town was very far from her village and the journey was really very difficult. This story describes one of her journeys to the town. On the way, she has to face many obstacles. But, every time she faces the obstacles very boldly and at last, reaches to the town. Her journey starts through the hill. It was beginning December, it was very cold and the path way was covered with snow. She tapped her stick on the snow and continued her journey. She used to talk to herself most of the time and she also talked with all the animals that she met on the way.After climbing the hill with a great difficulty, now she had to climb down but by then she got caught by thorny bush with a great labour she freed herself and again continued her journey. After sometimes, she came by a creek. She had to cross it. It was not an easy job. She had to cross it through a log. She took it to be a trial. Very carefully, she crossed the creek. She crossed it through a log even with her eyes closed. She again continued her journey but there was another obstacle waiting her. Now, she had to cross through a barbed wire fence. She crept and crawled through the wire saving herself and her gown. Again, she faced the trouble successfully. Now, she was passing through a corn field. There she saw a scarecrow. At first, she thought it to be a ghost but very boldly, she talked with it. Finally, when she knew that it was scarecrow, she even danced with it. After crossing the corn field as she was going on her way from somewhere, a black dog came before her all of a sudden. She lost her balance and fell down in a ditch there. She raised her hand for help. But, as there was nobody around, she silently remained there.After sometime, a hunter came there. He took her out from the ditch. While talking, a nickel (five-cent coin) dropped down from the man’s pocket. She stole it with a trick. After sometime, she reached to the town. There she asked a lady to tie her shoe laces. The whole town was decorated with colourful bulbs. But, her eyes were not working properly because it wasn’t a broad day light. But, depending on her senses, she finally reached the medical clinic. There she even forgot why she had been there. She didn’t remember for a short time. However, while talking with the nurse, she remembers her grandson and her purpose of visit. She took the medicine. While she was going from there, she got a nickel as a gift. She said that she would buy a paper toy for her grandson. After that, she left the clinic and returned towards home.]Important Questions
1. Explain Phoenix Jackson and journey she makes to the town of Natchez.
Ans: Phoenix Jackson is an old lady. She makes her journey to get medicine for her grandson. It was cold early December morning. She had a cane to walk. She has wrinkled face and unlaced shoes. Once she was caught in thorny bush and freed herself. Then she comes across a small river and barbed wire fence. She found herself in cotton field and saw scarecrow. After this, she comes across a dog, which barks at her. She hits the dog with her cane and she herself falls in the ditch. A Whiteman comes and helps her by lifting and she ran after dog. Then she found a shining nickel and put it into her pocket. The Whiteman returned and wanted to give her a dime but he hadn’t she saw a church and talks with a lady there. Finally she reached a stone building and climbed stairs. The receptionist asked her a lot of questions. Then comes a nurse and asks questions to Phoenix. Phoenix replied that her grandson had a throat problem. The doctor asked the nurse to give Phoenix medicine freely. The receptionist gave her a nickel and she said that she would buy a paper windmill for grandson.2. What was the purpose of Phoenix Jackson’s trip to town? What obstacles did she face in her way?
Ans: The old lady Phoenix Jackson’s purpose of her trip to the town was to get some medicine for her grandson who is suffering from throat pain. Her grandson had swallowed lye and his throat stops working. She faced many obstacles on the way to the town. She was caught in thorny bush and freed herself. Later on, she came across a dog. She hits the dog but she fell down herself in to the ditch. The Whiteman helps her. She walks through the jungle.3. What does Phoenix keep talking to herself? What do her monologues add to the total portrait of her?
Ans: Phoenix often talks herself on the way to the town. Mentally she is disturbed because of her grandson’s throat problem. When she was on the bank of river, she saw a boy coming towards her with cake in her imagination. When she found Whiteman’s nickel, she realized herself as if she was doing something bad. From her monologues, we know about her poor condition of old age, greed for money, love for grandson, courage, etc.4. ‘A worn path’ is a story of unconscious heroism of Phoenix Jackson.
Ans: Phoenix Jackson went to town for medicine for her grandson who had swallowed lye. Her grandson’s throat was not working. Nobody is there except Phoenix Jackson and her sick grandson. On the way to town, she speaks to herself on the way. She faces problems one after another. Once she was caught in thorny bush. She freed herself. Then she kicked the dog in spite of her old age when she kicked the dog, she fell into the ditch. She comes across a log and goes ahead. Finally, she brings medicine and returns back home. So this story is a story of unconscious heroism. Her monologues make this factor clear.5. Describe two obstacles old Phoenix comes up against on her way to hospital and how she deals with them.
Ans: Phoenix Jackson is an old lady. She makes her journey to get medicine for her grandson. It was cold early December morning. She had a cane to walk. She has wrinkled face and unlaced shoes. Once she was caught in thorny bush and freed herself. Then she comes across a small river and barbed wire fence. She found herself in cotton field and saw scarecrow. After this, she comes across a dog which barks at her. She hits the dog with her cane and she herself falls in the ditch. A Whiteman comes and helps her by lifting and she ran after dog. Then she found a shining nickel fallen out of the man’s pocket. The Whiteman returned and wanted to give her a dime but he hadn’t. She saw a church and talks with a lady there. Finally, she reached a stone building and climbed stairs. The receptionist asked her a lot of questions. Then comes a nurse and asks questions to Phoenix. Phoenix replied that her grandson had a throat problem. The doctor asked the nurse to give Phoenix medicine freely. The receptionist gave her a nickel and she said that she would buy a paper windmill for grandson.
Unit Two : Men, Women and Children
The Three Day Blow – Ernest Hemingway
“ The Three Days Blow” is a dramatic story. Two friends Nick and Bill meet at Bill’s cottage. The weather is shown violent. There is rain and storm. So, this is an ideal situation to stay inside home. They make fire, burn lots of logs and make themselves warm. They drink different alcohol and go on talking about different topics such as books, fishing, girlfriend, hunting, etc. without any plot, the story ends. The topics of the talk change suddenly from one subject to another. Bill and Nick have no specific purpose of meetings or talking. The weather creates situation for them. This keeps them inside when they talk about different topics. The writer creates situation of drinking so that they can reveal their feelings. He talks about the weather- rainfall, storm, wind, surf, etc. suddenly, he begins to have different sorts of drinks and talk about games of baseball. The topic of their talk shifts to books and writer. They slowly get drunk and talk about their habits. Then, they talk about nick’s girlfriend. This is the climax of the story. The theme of this scene lastly talks about hunting.When we read the drama, this scene opens one by one. The title of the story says something symbolically. Weather doesn’t remain same always. Even a single day we can experience the changing weather. This is the principle of nature. Weather is dynamic; it doesn’t remain constant all the time. Just like weather, mental conflict of tension of suffering is presented in several scenes or sequence of events. In the beginning scene, nick looks calm but with the movement of different scenes, his calm face changes.The setting of this story goes to be open with a nice scene. Nick is presented in the beginning on the way. He is going up to the village. There is an orchard and we see the blowing of air, breeze that is the first autumn storm. Nick picks up an apple and keeps it in his pocket. The two characters Nick and Bill are presented inside the house. They have their personal talk. The story begins with the scene of woods, lakes, kitchen, sitting room, dining room etc. In the beginning Nick is seen and the story ends with guns. They go down where Bill’s father was hunting. There are similar events between the whether and sequence of events of “The Three Days Blow”. There is conflict in the character Nick. He is getting confused about his girl friend Marjorie. He wants to meet her again but Bill makes him leave her. He wants to marry her although her mother is bad. There is union in both weather and the love of Nick with Marjorie. Weather becomes fair and love also becomes negotiable.The story is dramatic because there are characters and dialogues and unity of time and place. There are two characters Nick and Bill who have continuous dialogues like in the drama. The setting of the story is also like a drama. There is internal and external scene. These scenes can be converted into the drama. They just talk about some little subject that is the subject matter of both drama and story. These story deal with love. Marjorie’s mother can be presented as an antagonist, Nick as a protagonist and Bill as an inciting force. So the story is dramatic.The three-day blow and Nick’s mental condition are related. Marjorie’s business is fundamental subject of the story. Nick, though he is not enjoyed with her, is going to get married. Because of her mother, he breaks relation from Marjorie, his beloved. After different kinds of talks Bill and Nick’s conversations is concentrated. Marjorie’s business has broken his relation with her easily. So moment from Nick’s conflicts of love affairs, through suffering and separation to reconciliation ends. Thus Marjorie’s business is like a three day below that comes and disappears itself. Three-day blow comes, threatens and finally goes away. In the same way, conflict of love appears and disappears with despair and again with hope.The Marjorie’s business is fundamental subject of this story. Nick, though he was not engaged with her, was going to get married. Because of her mother he broke relation from Marjorie, his beloved. His mother was very terrible. To marry her meant he would have married the whole family her mother.Though the character Bill, the writer seems to be giving practical message. Nick seems to be emotional but Bill is practical. Nick is ready to accept Marjorie although her mother was bad. He really loves her and ready to accept her. His life can be compared with the storm. The moment when he met Marjorie and he left her due to unfavorable situation that moment is just like a violent storm, which doesn’t last for long time in the nature. Bill is practical. He says Nick to forget all the events related with Marjorie and lead his wife towards new direction. Human life is a mixture of sorrow and happiness. If any disastrous event comes in our life also, we should control our emotion and lead our life towards new phase and time happily. We should have capacity to adjust with all the fluctuations that come in our life.
1. Discuss “The Three Day Blow” as a dramatic story.
Ans: Drama is a particular type of literature that tells a story through the speech and actions of the character in the story. Here, in “The Three Day Blow” the story is presented with the help of dialogues. In the drama, the story is presented in different places, in the same way in `The Three Day Blow’ there are scenes too. The whole story becomes clear by the dialogue between Nick and Bill in different places. There are different stories like as drama. The story of father, girl friend, players, etc. is presented through this story.2. The story is presented in a sequence of approximately seven scenes. Can you find them?
Ans: In this story, Nick and Bill are the main characters. They are presented in different places. In the first scenes, Nick and Bill stand outside the cottage. In the second scenes Nick and Bill drink sitting in Bill’s sitting room. In the third scene nick is picking up the apricots he has dropped in the kitchen. In the fourth scene, they are putting the log on the fire in the sitting room. In the fifth scene, they were coming from the kitchen. In the scene, they are in the sitting room talking about Marjorie. In the seventh scene both friends Nick and Bill are outside the cottage and they are ready to go for hunting.3. What is the relationship between the Three Day Blow and Nick’s mental condition?
Ans: There is similarity between the Three Day Blow and Nick’s mental condition. As the three day blow comes suddenly and makes the tree leafless, similar kind of tragic blow comes in the love affair between Nick and Marjorie. Nick loves Marjorie but her mother is bad. The first day blow indicates Nick’s hatred towards Marjorie’s mother; the second blow indicates his suffering from separation. The third day blow indicates his planning for reunion.
Unit Three : Ecology And Environment
The Poplar Field – William Cowper
The Poplar Field is a sad poem by William Cowper, a British poet. It is a preservation of nature or environmental conservation. Here, the poet presents the contrast between the past and the present. The poem shows the terrible consequences of deforestation upon the environment and human life. The poplars have been felled and so there is no shade now. The whispering sound of the cool colonnade can’t be heard. The winds don’t play and sing any longer with the leaves. The images of the trees can’t be seen on the chest of the ‘Ouse’ River. The poet says that the poplar field was green and attractive twelve years ago. He used to sit under the tree and take pleasure, but now he sits on them as they have lied down on the grass. Because of the destruction of the shelter, the blackbird has flown away to another place where hazel trees provide him a screen to be safe from the heat. That is why, the pet doesn’t hear the beautiful song of the bird now as he used to in the past. Being lonely and desperate because of destruction of the poplars, the poet says, he is also going to die with a turf (mud with small grass) on his chest and a stone on his head. Cowper requests us for happy and pleasant life which can be possible through healthy and balanced environment. For this, deforestation should be controlled following aforestation. He philosophically presents that human life is temporary, momentary and very short live so human pleasures and enjoyments are even very much shorter than the life. We should not do any action for transitory physical benefit, but should think for long lasting benefit. We should know the bitter reality that destruction of forest is the destruction of human life and pleasure. We can’t even imagine life without healthy and balanced environment. Therefore, we should preserve the environment through rational and reasonable thinking and behaviours.It is full of images and rhyming words. The use of the first person pronoun ‘I’ shows that the poet is presenting his personal feelings. However, it is a universal burning issue of environmental destruction. The tone of the poem is nostalgic or melancholic, and there is pessimistic note as well. Concludingly, the poem is remarkable for its universal issue, lyrical quality, realistic depiction, philosophic subject matter and invaluable message.
1. Summarize the poem “The Poplar Field” in one paragraph.
Ans: The poem `The Poplar Field’ was composed by William Cowper. The poet compares the condition of the poplar field before 12 years and after 12 years. Before twelve years, when he visited the poplar field, at that time there were many trees and the shade of these trees could be seen in the Ouse river. The black bird used to sing. The wind used to blow in the leaves. He sat under the trees. But after twelve years he found nothing, only cut down trees were lying on the ground. Finally, the poet compares his life with the condition of those poplar trees. The trees were once strong and straight but now they are lying on the ground, similarly, the poet was also handsome and young but now he has become old and he thinks he will lie on the ground soon. It means he will die soon.2. What changes did the poet see in the poplar field when he came back after 12 years?
Ans: After twelve years, he saw the many changes in the poplar field. The trees were cut down. They were lying down on the ground there was no reflection of trees in the Ouse River. The black birds had left the poplar field. The poet couldn’t hear bird’s song. The wind wasn’t blowing in the leaves of the trees as in the past. He sat on cut down trees.3. Discuss how the poet links up the idea of the cut down poplars with the end of human life and pleasures.
Ans: After twelve years, he saw many changes in the poplar field. The trees were cut down. They were lying down on the ground there was no reflection of trees in the Ouse River. The black birds had left the poplar field. The poet couldn’t hear bird’s song. The wind wasn’t blowing in the leaves of trees as in the past. He sat on cut down trees. The poplar field has changed to a desert. The sight of the fallen poplars makes the poet feel sad. He realizes that he will die soon in the future and lie in the grave like the fallen poplars lying on the grass. The poet also says that our pleasures are shorter than our life.4. Write essay on “Living in the country.” Or, write an essay on rural life”.
Ans: Country Life means spending our life in village. Most people in our country live in village. There is peaceful environment in the village. There is no noise of vehicles and there isn’t much crowd. Village people have fresh air, water, and they have leisure life. They are not as busy as town people. Village people are cooperative and they help each other in need. But there are not many schools and there is illiteracy. Most of them are uneducated. There are less opportunities of job. Everywhere there is poverty. There aren’t many facilities of schools, hospital, transport, and so on. Therefore, they can’t get good education, treatment well.
Unit Three: Ecology and Environment
Unchopping a Tree – W.S. Merwin
In the essay “Unchopping a Tree”, the writer presents impossible example to convey deep meaning. Joining the chopped parts of trees refers to the new plantation of more trees in the open fields, which are full of stumps. Every part of trees refers to the every parts of the nature whether they are small or big. Each and every parts of nature is important. As we are also the creation of the nature, it is our duty to maintain the balance in the nature. We don’t have rights to destroy the nature. Actually we are not destroying the nature but we are destroying ourselves. Our lives totally depend upon the nature. Through the writer’s appeal to join the parts of the chopped trees, he wants to remind human beings about their important works to be done to conserve the greenery of the nature.Unchopping a tree is impossible. It is only a kind of feeling but certainly it has meaning. The writer emphasizes on the preservation of the nature. The nature should be preserved and those persons who cut the trees must plant some more in replacement. When they save and plant the trees, it is unchopping a tree. The writer warns that it is easy to destroy but very hard to create. He further says that life of a tree and human life are the same so they should be preserved with equal emphasis. Not only the trees we should save but also should protect the habitats of some animals that live in trees.The writer tries to persuade us how to work hard to bring the chopped tree into the original situation, which is not really possible. When a tree is felled down, there is no way to bring it into its original condition. But its place can be replaced with more trees, which we plant. Trees are also the important parts of the ecosystem as other living creatures. We should think of conservations of such trees instead of deforestation for the protection of the ecosystem.
1. What does the essay “Unchopping a tree” suggest about conservation?
Ans: The essay “unchopping a tree” by showing the impossibility of restoring once cut down trees, makes people aware of the fact that we should not destroy the natural forest indiscriminately. Even if by hook or crook, you are able to make the tree stand, you can’t infuse life on it. It is easy to chop but impossible to restore. Thus before we chop we must know how to unchop, which is impossible. To sum up, he warns us against deforestation. If the acts are not stopped on time, it is going to boomerang on us in the long run.2. How is the chopping down of trees compared to a man’s life in the poem ‘The Poplar Field’?
Ans: The poet thinks that he will die one day. He says that all the pleasures of man are destroyed. Even our life is short but our enjoyment will die before our death. He says that he is lying on the earth like the tree. He feels that cutting down of trees is serious as the death of human beings. The poet thinks that the pleasures of man are perishable and momentary. So, he appeals to the people for conserving the nature. He says that deforestation should be stopped.
Unit Three : Ecology and Environment
Keeping Things Whole – Mark Strand
In this poem the poet pleads for wholeness against the usual fragmentation that goes on in life. The poet believes in whole part and not in partial. He knows the value of each and every part of nature to present nature as whole. He tries to know the value of each and every small and small parts of nature to continue the wholeness of nature. The poet indirectly pleads human beings to fill the gaps in the nature if they separate the parts of nature. The poet indirectly pleads human beings to keep nature whole by conserving its every small parts in every small part in every hidden part of corner.The poem deals with two separate things of anything, which are part and whole. The nature has small parts small parts. It is divided into the separate elements. He has lost himself in the field. He is losing himself everywhere. The poet parts the air forward but it becomes whole behind him. He only makes the air whole, not a part. But everything becomes whole itself. We see field, air, etc as a part not as a complete. Our lives are also parted but it is only illusion. If we try to make separate parts, that is only hollowness of concept.The poet has presented himself in the field missing and parting in the air and he is whole not part in the bank drop. He wants to be whole, not part. He is not happy with himself because he is an illegal divider in the natural environment. He feels that he is fragmenting, disturbing and damaging the natural wholeness that is why air moves to fill the spaces occupied by his body while he walks. He becomes careful not to disturb the wholeness of things in the environment. This shows his concern to the protection of environment.The poet suggests that if human being involves encouraging the existence of the nature, the nature also gives reaction. For example, if we cut down the forest, land erosion, flood, landslides occur. Then, men get knowledge from the nature that the nature itself is powerful rather from human beings. Even if man tries to challenge the existence of the nature, he can’t get victory over it. So, the poet becomes very much sensitive for the delicate balance of the nature. The last stanza suggests that we all move to make a whole, not part. The poet moves forward and he parts the air but it becomes whole again. So, what we think of being parted i.e.; that is wrong. Everything in the world is whole.
Important Questions1. Interpret the poem “Keeping Things Whole.” Or, Write the central idea of the poem.
Ans: We human beings move from one place to another place to fulfill our purpose. We all have our own purposes for moving. When we move from one place to another place, we divide the air but the air moves in to fulfill the place from where we have gone through. Similarly we become absent in the place which we leave. According to the poet this happiness all the time in our life, we try to do wholeness/completeness but everything remains incomplete. When we solve one problem, other problems move in like air moves in. In the same way we find something missing in the first place when we go to another place.
Unit Four : Humour
Concrete Cat – Dorthi Charles
“Concrete Cat” is an example of a concrete poem. It focuses to the physical picture and not the imagination, emotion and language. This type of poem is written for eyes and not for mind and heart. It does not appeal to the heart because it doesn’t emphasize on emotion and thought. It is written in the short form, which is also called “reduced language”. Words do not follow the regular pattern of the poems. Words are scattered in such a way that they form the real portrait of the thing to be expressed by the poem. The chief concern of such a poem is with the physical appearance of poetry- not primarily with ideas or emotions and also not with language as we ordinarily use.This poem says something about a cat and its “catness” in action. Ear, eye, mouth, whisker, tail, etc. all sketched on the page denote both physical and abstract meanings. The middle stripe is the only place where language encourages toward poetry and becomes figurative. This middle stripe shows stomach part which says much about the human world and human activities.Unlike other poem, the words are arranged in such a way those emotions are kept in a shadow and real portrait is highlighted. From the words written in different shapes and styles we understand the poem. The poem creates such a situation that we can see the real picture of cat immediately after we read the poem. Outer appearances seem to be important than emotions and thoughts. Different parts of cat’s body are presented by the use of words in their respective places.Generally poems are written in certain stanza and generally follow the traditional pattern. Many poems are written in ornamental language. But, this poem doesn’t follow that pattern. This poem is made for our eyes rather than our ear. The meaning of the poem is nothing other than the portrait of the cat. The poet has used craftsmanship.
1. ‘Concrete Cat’ is an example of a concrete poem, how?
Ans: This poem is made for eye. This poem doesn’t concern much with emotions. The capitalized ‘A’ in ear is for pointed ear, ‘Y’ for eyes, ‘U’ for cat’s mouth. Similarly the words `stripes’ is for stripes of the cat and ‘upside’ mouse indicates dead mouse and the cat killed it. The poem is very fully and humorous. The poet is successful to give the concrete structure of the cat with the help of individual letters and words.
Unit Six : Life and Death
On The Vanity of Earthly Greatness – Arthur Guiterman
“On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness” is a poem written by Arthur Guiterman, an American poet and journalist, is known for the humorous verse. Through humour, he has tried to depict the reality of human beings and animals caused by the change in time. It shows the bitter reality that the power of animals or human beings doesn’t remain same when time and situation change. We always run after reputation and prestige. We become or want to be great and we think it will remain the same forever. We earn reputation and prestige and we think it will remain the same forever. We earn reputation and we think that the credit won’t be lost but actually we won’t think that is destroyed in due to the course of time. Our greatness is destroyed by time. So, time laughs at our blindness and pride.Time is such a thing on which we cannot get victory. The nature has given us limited time to live and exercise our power. Beyond that time, we cannot move according to our desire. Only in favourable time and situation we can perform our actions or activities.The “vanity” actually means the degrading value of reputations of any persons and animals in the world. To clarify this point the writer has presented few examples. Julius Caesar was a great warrior and a famous general statesman. He earned a great name and fame in his time through his strength and power. But that power lost its value with the change in the time and situation. He does not posses any arm and power to show his power of the past. His head is on the shelf and weapons and other things belongings are only in the museum in the form of history.The Roman emperor Charlemagne was a great in his time by his sword, power. But the power of his sword also became meaningless due to the change in time. Now that sword has been rusted and is kept useless in the museum. Not only the great kings and warriors, but there is also good presentation of powerful animals whose value has been decreased. Grizzly bear, whose embrace was very dreadful, has become nothing more than a rug to give warmth. Tusks of mighty brawls of mastodons have been changed into playing things like billiard balls.All the given examples are concerned with the greatness but the greatness has been turned and reduced to valueless things. The vanity human greatness and animals’ strength have become a good subject to present irony. That irony makes one feel unwell and quite indifferent to the person.Everybody becomes great in his time and situation but later on he becomes helpless and valueless. All reputation and achievements will be dismissed quickly. So, it is useless to take pride in one’s power as everything decays and fades away in due course of time.
1. What changes to people and objects are described in the poem, “On the vanity of Earthly Greatness?”
Ans: In this poem, the poet shows greatness of time. According to the poet time is powerful. It brings the changes to people or objects. The tusks of mastodons that fought powerful fights in the past have now become playthings (i.e. billiard balls). The brave emperor Charlemagne’s sword has now rusted. People were afraid of grizzly bear in the past but now its skin has changed into rug in the same way, the bust powerful Roman general is kept in the self. This shows that every powerful person or things become powerless with the passage of time. So the poet makes the fun of greatness of human beings and things. Every greatness becomes the subject of decay, death and worthless.2. What are the different examples used by the poet to show the vanity of early greatness?
Ans: There are different examples being used by the poet to show the vanity of earthly greatness in the poem. Generally, we think that the great persons or things of today will be equally great tomorrow but greatness of persons or things of present time may be worthless with the passage of time. The poet makes the fun of greatness and power of great people and things. The tusks of mastodons that fought powerful fights in the past have now become playthings (billiard balls). The brave emperor Charlemagne’s sword has now rusted. People were afraid of grizzly bear in the past but now its skin has changed into rug in the same way, the bust powerful Roman general is kept in the self. This shows that every powerful person or things becomes powerless with the passage of time. So the poet makes the fun of greatness of human beings and things. Every greatness becomes the subject of decay, death and worthless.
Unit Four : Humour
Oops ! How’s That Again – Roger Rosenblatt
“Oops! How’s That Again” is written by Rosenblatt and this essay has created humorous tone. Through the humorous tone, the essayist has tried to reflect the bitter reality of human beings when they make mistake when they speak. He enriches his discussion with remarkable examples; although, as befits its subject. He is much concerned with the psychological causes of bloopers.Human beings often make mistake knowingly and unknowingly when they speak. After making mistake they also apologize for it. From the uneducated person to highly intellectual and educated, scholar, different mistakes are made according to their level. This essay describes the mistake the people make while speaking and the reasons behind it are divided into four categories. They are as follows: i. Public Blunders ii. Memorable Translations iii. Bloopers iv. Spoonerisms.Public Blunders are the mistakes made by the people when they give speech. While delivering the speech, they don’t actually care for the grammatical mistakes or vocabulary mistakes. These mistakes are specially committed by especially by the political leaders when they deliver their speech. They try to give emphasis by giving different examples but their sentences are not totally complete. This happens due to their tongue slip. Here the speaker may be trying to give message from one view but the different audience may take it in wrong way.Memorable translations are the mistakes generally done by the people who speak very fast. This is also related to the psychological condition of the listener. The words spoken by the fast speaker may not be easily understood the real words. There may be misunderstanding between the speaker and listener. The person with weak psychology, if, wrongly interprets the words of the speaker, it may bring violent situation.Bloopers are the mistakes done foolishly and not tried to correct. These mistakes are very simple types of mistakes, which are not given much importance by the speaker. This may be the habit of some people. Spoonerisms are the mistakes, which are done by the use of incorrect words due to tongues slips. Here, wrong words are not known by the listener as the speaker immediately tries to replace the wrong word when he comes to know the mistake. While the replacement of words the speaker should be conscious as wrong replacement can misinterpret the actual meaning.There are different views about the verbal errors according to different people. Victoria Fromkin, a linguist, says that the verbal errors happen due to tongue slips concerned with the brain. Before the words are expressed, thought is placed by the brain into a grammatical framework. Sigmund Freud, a psychiatrist, presents his theory about the verbal error in different way. According to him, a tongue slips are caused by the network of id (unconscious mind), ego (subconscious mind) and superego (conscious mind). When people make mistakes, it has become the trend to laugh at them. Why do we laugh at them we don’t know. According to the philosopher Henri Bergson, the act of laughter is caused by any interruption of normal human fluidity or momentum. So, tongue slips are like slips of banana peels. We simply make fun and hoot at the errors simply to break the monotonies.
1. Into what group has Rosenblatt organized his blunders example of verbal miss-steps?
Ans: Rosenblatt has organized them into four groups: public blunder, memorable mistranslations, bloopers and spoonerisms. First he talks about public blunders e.g. Nancy Regan describes the voters as “The beautiful white people” secondly, the writers say about memorable translation. This type of error is created when “Come alive with Pepsi” another verbal error is blooper is generally made on TV and radio programmes. In place of saying “Herbert Hoover” one says “Boobert Heever”. The fourth error is “Spoonerisms” once Spooner said to his students. “You have hissed all my mystery lectures” instead of “You have missed all my history lectures.”2. What explanation does Rosenblatt advice for the human tendency to make verbal errors?
Ans: The writer examines many reasons why the speaker makes such errors. According to the writer, slip of the tongue is the main cause of the mistakes (verbal errors). Slip of the tongue is like slip on the banana peels. The thoughts in our mind are put into the grammatical order before we express them. According to Freud, the slips or the verbal errors are caused by the speaker’s inner desires. The tongue slips also because other types or verbal errors such as blooper (stupid mistakes) and spoonerism. The writer says that nothing is perfect and ever successful. It is human nature to make mistakes.
Unit Six : Life and Death
The Six Million Dollar Man – Harold J. Morowitz
Dr. Harold J Morowita is a professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry. He is a scientist, teacher, and author. ‘The Six Million Dollar Man’ is a popular essay in which Morowitz examines the statistical statement that the chemical value of the human body is only 97 cents. He spends his essay in refining and improving the statement and tries to arrive at a more accurate definition at the end.From a biochemical catalogue he collects the information about the price of ingredients that the human body is made of. Then he calculates the average value of a gram dry weight of human being and his own dry weight. When he multiplies both, he finds his price, i.e. Six million dollar. But soon he realizes that each human being is priceless and infinitely precious. He concludes his essay with Alfred North Whiteheads conclusion that “the human body is an instrument for the production at art in the life of the human soul.”The author received a humorous birthday and from his daughter and son-in-law with a caption “According to BIOCHEMISTS the materials that make up the HUMAN BODY are only worth 190 cents.” The definition compelled him to make thorough study of the entire matter. He started by sitting down with his catalogue from a biochemical company and began to list the ingredients and their prices. His biochemical value was 97c when he was paying for the informally poorest form of cool, air, water, lime, bulk iron, etc. but in the six million dollar figure he was paying for his atoms in the highest informational state in which they are commercially available.It can be done for less than six thousand trillion dollars. But we cannot evaluate the human life in biochemical point of view. An incubator can develop micro-organisms artificially but it cannot assemble the cells into tissues, tissues into organs, and organs into a person, fill it with life and make a human being.Thus, each human being is priceless and infinitely precious. We cannot evaluate a person’s life in terms of money. The rationality and humanity are the characteristics of human being. It can produce anything. Alfred North Whitehead is true that “The human body is an instrument for the production of art in the life of human soul.Morowitz shifts his subject. He starts out talking about the human body and ends up talking about the human being. Human body and human being differ from each other. Human body is made up of chemical organism but a man becomes human being because of consciousness, rationality and some indispensable human qualities.
Important Questions1. Why did the writer say he was a six Million Dollar man?
Ans: Once, the writer received a birthday card sent by his daughter and son-in-law. In that card, it was mentioned that the price of the human body is only 97 cents. Later he gets price list of all the parts of the body from bio-chemical company. He concludes that the value of dry human body is $ 245.54 per-gram. The weight of the writer’s dry body is 244436 grams. He multiplies it and finds the total value of his body $ 6,000,015.44.So he calls himself a six Million Dollar man.2. How does the writer come to the conclusion that each human being is priceless?
Ans: Once, the writer received a birthday card sent by his daughter and son-in-law. In that card, it was mentioned that the price of the human body is only 97 cents. Later he gets price list of all the parts of the body from bio-chemical company. He concludes that the value of dry human body is $ 245.54 per-gram. The weight of the writer’s dry body is 244436 grams. He multiplies it and finds the total value of his body $ 6,000,015.44.So he calls himself a six Million Dollar man.3. Explain Harold J. Morowitz’s Joy in discovering that he is a six million Dollar man.
Ans: The writer Harold J. Morowitz received birthday greeting card sent by his daughter and son in- law. On it he finds the statement “According to biochemists, the materials that make up human body are worth 97 cents. This statement shows that human body is very cheap. Then he visits a biochemist and takes a price list of all the human body. The weight of the writer’s dry body is 2444.36 grams. He multiplies it and finds the total value of his body $ 6,000,015.44. So he calls himself a six Million Dollar man. After doing this, he calculates prices of cells, tissues, souls, etc. then he finds a man valuable or priceless. He concludes that the price of human body can’t be measured in terms of dollar. The human body is endlessly valuable.
Unit Six : Life and Death
The Gardener – Rudyard Kipling
Helen is the protagonist and establishes relationship with Michael. Michael, whom Helen calls nephew, is in reality, her son whose father is unknown throughout the story. The gardener is a mysterious character who does not appear at first and in the middle but only at the last of the story creating confusions in the readers. Helen Turrell hides the truth about Michael till the end of the story but she does not show any reaction when the gardener confidently says he will tell where her son lies.The villagers of Hampshire believe Michael to be an unfortunate son of Helen’s late brother, George Turrell and his beloved (not wife). Actually it was not so. She had created a false story about Michael’s parents. Michael was born when Helen was in southern part of France. She had told lies about her trip that she had long troubles. Because of the fear of social blame she had told another lie that she had arranged for the passage of the child and a nurse from Bombay. She was thirty-five when she gave birth to the child. She showed much fondness to the child despite the fact that she was not the child lover.Michael was fearless, Philosophical and fairly good-looking. At the age of six, he knew that Helen was not her real mother but his aunt. She did not allow Michael to say her mummy because she was unmarried. To escape from the society’s disrespect, she made Michael know the false reality.Michael got maturity in due to the course of time but his interest in Helen was constant and increasing throughout. Though Helen wanted him to go to Oxford University, he took war as his career. The First World War was going on. Many soldiers were killed during war. Michael was killed by the shell-splinter explosion. After getting full proof about his death, Helen, being a next of –kin, prepared to go and see his grave in Hazenzeelein the third Military Cemetery with perfect information.In a teashop, three kilometers away from cemetery, she met an English Woman, Mrs. Scarsworth. They stopped in a hotel where Mrs. Scarsworth revealed that she had come there to see the grave of someone special to her and also that she was unmarried. Helen told lie that she had come to see her nephew’s grave.Next morning she walked alone towards the grave. As she was searching at the mean time she saw a man knelt behind a line of headstones-evidently a gardener. He did not introduce with her neither did he salute her. He asked her who she was looking for. She said it was Lieutenant Michael Turrell, her nephew. He had definite strong feeling of sympathy in his expression and eyes. He said he would show her where her ‘son’ lies. She went away, supposing him to be the gardener when she left the cemetery.
1. What is the real relation between Helen and Michael?
Ans: The real relation between Helen and Michael can be described as close relatives. Helen Turrell says that her brother George Turrell had a relationship with the daughter of retired non-commissioned police officer. She also says that before George Terrell’s death, George gave birth to a child, later on George died falling from a horse. According to Helen, she goes to French because of her lung problem and there she manages to bring the child from India. Her parents and brother are not alive to know the truth. She also says that Michael’s mother said nothing for child. At the graveyard the gardener, also she said Michael was her son. In fact, what she said to the villagers was false. She might have created this false story to keep the villagers silent. Otherwise, she would be condemned in the society. To tell the truth, she was unmarried. So she hid the real fact. In fact Helen and Michael were mother and son. She told all these lies so that she would not be condemned in the society.
2. How do we know who the gardener really is?
Ans: The person who was the eyewitness of the death of Michael was a gardener. According to this story, the gardener reveals the truth. The Gardener is seen at the end of this story at the graveyard. And when Helen reaches at the graveyard, the gardener asks Helen who she is looking for. When Helen replies that, she is looking for her nephew. Then the Gardener says “Come with me and I will show you where your son lies.” The gardener was able to show her Michael’s name through Helen hadn’t said any grave number. So I think that God was incarnated in form of a gardener. So the gardener must be God.
3. What was the effect of Michael’s death on Helen?
Ans: Helen was eager to know more about Michael’s death who had become a soldier. First he was sent to England but later on he was sent to Somme. One day a shell-splinter dropped and killed Michael. Helen becomes so sad when she heard the news about Michael’s death. She wrote many letters too many people and offices to find Michael’s death. The war stopped but she didn’t take any interest in the war. She sat on various relief committees. One day she got an official letter and there was news of Lieutenant Michael Turrell. She knew that Michael’s dead body was in Hagenzeele. Hagenzeele was the third military cemetery. Finally, she goes to Hagenzeele to see Michael’s grave.
4. Sketch the character of Helen.
Ans: Helen Turrell was a thirty five years independent young woman. She fell in love with a young man of lower status than her and became pregnant. Frightened with criticism of society, she made a false story that her brother George Turrell had a relationship with the daughter of retired non-commissioned police officer. She also says that before George Terrell’s death. George gave birth to a child, later on George died falling from a horse. According to Helen, she goes to France because of her lung problem and there she manages to bring the child from India. Her parents and brother are not alive to know the truth. She also says that Michael’s mother said nothing for child. She convinced Michael to say her auntie. At the graveyard the gardener also said Michael was her son. In fact, what she said to the villagers was false. She might have created this false story to keep her villagers silent otherwise; she would be disappointed in the society. To tell the truth, she was unmarried. So she hid the real fact. In fact, Helen and Michael were mother and son. She told all these lies so that she would not be disappointed in the society. She was victim of emotion and fear of social disapproval. At last, emotions got victory over fear.
5. “Helen Turrell is ashamed that Michael is her son.” Do you agree with this statement?
Ans: Helen Turrell says that her brother George Turrell had a relationship with the daughter of retired non-commissioned police officer. She also says that before George Terrell’s death. George gave birth to a child, later on George died falling from a horse. According to Helen, she goes to France because of her lung problem and there she manages to bring the child from India. Her parents and brother are not alive to know the truth. She also says that Michael’s mother said nothing for child. At the graveyard, the gardener also Michael said was her son. In fact, what she said to the villagers was false. She might have created this false story to keep her villagers silent. Otherwise, she would be condemned in the society. To tell the truth, she was unmarried so she hid the real fact. In fact, Helen and Michael were mother and son. She told all these lies so that she would not be condemned in the society.
Unit Five : Identity, Gender and Ethnicity
Malini – Rabindranath Tagore
Malini, by Rabindranath Tagore, the Bengali Indian poet, is a poetic play with a story of love and hatred. It dramatizes the conflict between Buddhism and Hinduism, change and status quo, and new and old. It is also a symbolic play which presents revolt against revolt.The protagonist of the play, Malini, is the princess of Kashi who practices Buddhism. But all the people in her father’s kingdom follow the old religion i. e. Hinduism. It is dangerous for her to follow Buddhism in the land of Hinduism. Here, she symbolizes love, truth, non-violence, beauty, youth, sacrifice, change and novelty. She doesn’t believe in the theoretical religious scriptures. It means that she revolts against the traditional and dogmatic beliefs. But, the Brahmins of the nation revolt against the new religion in the land of their old religion. They demand banishment of the princess for the protection of the old one as she is spoiling their creed.The king and the queen ask her not to follow the new religion in the kingdom. If the people are dissatisfied, it will be difficult to rule the kingdom maintaining law and order. But, Malini herself wants to be banished and teach them the truth of her new religion and guide them in the pathless sea. She thinks that her destiny is to find riches in poverty. All the people desire her exile but Supriya is against it as he recognizes her as an innocent, true and wise girl. When the priests approach her, they also are fascinated by her glory and greatness. Then, Kemankar is alone and goes to the foreign land to bring soldiers to revolt against the new creed. Supriya assures him that falsehood is new but their friendship is old when Kemankar becomes suspicious. But, when Supriya is more enchanted by love, truth and honesty of Malini, he betrays Kemankar revealing all of his secret plans against the king. It indicates that it is not the stranger but the familiar who betrays. Then, Kemankar is captured by the king in accusation of treason. The king asks him what he will do if he is released but he says he wants to complete his incomplete work. Being furious, the king asks him the last wish. Kemankar wishes to see his friend, Supriya. He speaks to Supriya with very many sweet and soft words. But when he comes closer, Kemankar strikes him with a chain and kills him for his betrayal. Here, Kemankar offers his best friend the gift of death embracing the dead body of Supriya. Then, he himself orders to call the executioner. Being mad with rage, the king himself rises up with a sword but Malini requests him to forgive Kemankar. The play ends in suspense whether the king forgives him or not.The play consists of two acts. It wonderfully presents the religious conflict betn the people. It can be said incomplete play as it ends openly. The play is remarkable for its symbolic characters, artistic style, political touch, realistic depiction and a surprise ending.
1. Would you call Supriya a betrayer? Give reasons for your answer.
Ans: Yes, we can say Supriya as a betrayer because Supriya and Kemankar were two close friends. They used to stay together. Kemankar wanted to go to foreign land to bring armies to revolt against Malini. Supriya also wanted to go with Kemankar. Kemankar asked him to retain there and inform him. While Kemankar was in foreign land, he warns Supriya not to betray their old friendship because of the new religion. But Kemankar goes to foreign land and writes his friend about plans then Supriya informs about Kemanker’s secret plan to the king. King captures Kemankar. In this way, Supriya can be said as a great betrayer. He actually deceived his own close friend.Kemankar was a philosopher and true thinker. He was open-minded and not a conservative. He did not believe in physical force. He did not want bloodshed in the name of religion. He was not blind to his religion as his friend Kemankar. He only revealed the truth of Kemankar’s plan when he saw that his friend wanted bloodshed in the name of religion. Kemankar’s main guilt was to organize foreign troops to invade his own country. Thus, Supriya told the king about the plan of Kemankar to save his motherland. Even Supriya did not hesitate to go near Kemankar though he knew that his friend would kill him. So, I would not call Supriya a betrayer.
2. Describe the characters of Malini.
Ans: Malini is a beautiful and young girl. She is the princes. She is from royal family but impressed by Buddhism. She doesn’t follow the traditional old religion. But Brahmins go against Malini because they are follower of traditional old religion (i.e. Hinduism). She asks for her own banishment. She likes to live among the poor people. She doesn’t want comforts, pleasure, treasures, etc. she wants to guide the people who are living in the darkness. The queen calls her pure flame of fire. The common people regard her mother of the world. When the king wants to punish Kemankar, Malini requests the king to forgive Kemankar. This shows that Malini is a kind hearted, virtuous girl who always speaks in favour of non-violence and poor people.The poetic play ‘Malini’ was written by great Indian poet and philosopher Rabindaranath Tagore. Malini, the protagonist of the poetic play ‘Malini’, can be considered as a symbol of love, light and divinity. Malini was simple, truthful, loving, kind and forgiving. Though she was a Hindu princess, she followed Buddhism. She hated the pleasures of her palace. She wanted to help the poor and the suffering people. Everyone was impressed by her words and simplicity. When Kemankar killed Supriya, she even asked her father to forgive Kemankar. When the Brahmins asked for her banishment, she was heartfully ready to leave the palace. She did not find any attachment with the worldly beauty and material world. She thought that wealth does not cling to those whose destiny was to find riches in poverty. She maintained love and truth to be the soul and body of a religion. She had love for all the creatures in the world.Malini was the image of love and forgiveness. Though she was born in a palace, she ignored jewels and ornaments. She was the princess of Kashi, a Hindu Kingdom but she was influenced by Buddhism. She wanted to leave the palace and help the poor and suffering people. The Brahmins were frightened by her new philosophy, so they wanted her banishment from the country. But when the Brahmins met her, they were influenced by her words and simplicity. She was like the lamp in darkness. She wanted to lead the people towards truth and heaven. She had infinite compassion to everyone, even to the sinner Kemankar.
3. Why were the Brahmins demanding for the banishment of Malini?
Ans: Malini is a beautiful young princess who was taught by Buddhist monk. She wanted to bring new creed among people. She doesn’t follow the traditional old religion. Hinduism but follows new religion Buddhist. The Brahmins believe that the members of the royal family should spend their life in pleasures and comforts but Malini doesn’t like this. Brahmins wanted to revolt against Buddhism. They were demanding for the banishment of Malini to protect their old religion. Finally, Kemankar bring armies to revolt against the new religion.
4. How is the character of Supriya different from that of Kemankar?
Ans: Kemankar is the blind follower of traditional old religion-Hinduism. When Malini speaks in favour of Buddhism, Kemankar as well as other Brahmin’s can’t tolerate it and revolt for the banishment of Malini. Later on other Brahmins speak in favour Of Malini; he leaves country to bring armies from foreign country and revolt against his countrymen. On the other hand, Supriya support Malini. Finally, Supriya betrays Kemankar informing the king about secret plans of Kemankar. According to Kemankar, Supriya is lost in the love and Charm of Malini.
5. What is the reason that Malini asks for her own banishment from the palace?
Ans: Malini is a beautiful young prince who is taught by a Buddhist monk. She is impressed by Buddhism. She doesn’t like royal happiness, pleasures and comforts. But the Brahmins who are the followers of traditional old religion believe that members of royal family should spend their life in comforts. Malini doesn’t like it at all. When Malini goes against traditional old religion Hinduism, at that time Brahmins go to royal palace for the banishment of Malini. Malini thinks that the outside world wants her. Malini then asks for her own banishment from the palace to go to live among the poor people. She wants to teach the Brahmins the reality and lead them to the truth.
6. Make a character sketch of Kemankar.
Kemankar was an aggressive Hindu. He was ready to die for his belief and religion. He was rigid, conservative and strong. He wanted the banishment of Malini because she had followed Buddhism. He thought that we should not discard the religion of our ancestors. His main fault was he wanted to use force to wipe out new creed from his country. He even went to the foreign land to organize foreign army and attack his own kingdom. So, he was the image of hatred. He kills his own childhood friend Supriya when he deceives him.
Unit Six : Life and Death
In Bed – Joan Didion
Joan Didion describes migraine headaches in general in this essay and she describes her own problem. It shows the difference between the migraine headache and the common headache. In this essay she draws upon both subjective & personal experience & objective medical knowledge in the essay.Didion tells us that she is a sufferer of migraine headache, the physiological error. Because of such disease, she passes many days in bed. She has no brain tumor, eye strain, no high blood pressure, nothing wrong with her except migraine. Therefore, in the beginning, she ignores it, fights with it, goes to school & also to work, listens to the lectures with involuntary tears running down the right side of her face, throws up in rooms, empties ice trays on to her bed & freezes the plain in the right temple. She says that migraine is not imaginary but hereditary. Anything can trigger a specific attack of migraine: stress, allergy, fatigue, a sudden change in barometric pressure, a flashing light, a fire drill, etc. She claims that she spends time in bed with a headache not because of her bad attitude, unpleasant tempers & wrong think, but she herself, her both grandmothers & both father& mother had migraine headache. Didion tells that only the sufferers know the suffering.Then, Didion writes the effects of migraine. She says migraine gives some people mild hallucinations, temporarily binds others, show up stomach disturbances, pain to all the senses, sudden tiredness, aphasia, nausea, inability to do the normal work, brings cold, sweating with it. However, no one dies of it. According to the doctors, the migraine personality is ambiguous, inward, intolerant of error, rather rigidly organized, perfectionist. But here, she claims that not all the perfectionists have migraine, and not all migrainous people have migraine personalities. Lastly, the writer confesses that it is difficult to ignore migraine and also to escape heredity. When she accepts and lives with migraine, she does not feel much trouble as before. She concentrates only on the pain as in yoga and feels happy and blessed.The essay is vivid and sensuous. It is short but full of technical medical terms which make the essay a bit more complex. The essayist explains the causes, consequences and the preventive measures of migraine in the essay.
1. What are the distinctive traits of migraine headaches? Or What are the features of migraine headache?
Ans: Migraine is a type of severe recurrent headache usually in one-side of head. It can’t be easily cured. Ordinary headache can be cured by taking aspirins. Migraine can be prevented only by injections or drugs. A sufferer of migraine headache starts vomiting. When migraine starts, some people have hallucination, blinding effect, stomach pain, tiredness, pain in all the senses and they are unable to do their normal work. They look if they are drunk; however, nobody dies of it.2. Why does the writer consider herself as fortunate?
Ans: Writer’s husband had also same problem. He was also suffering from migraine. Her husband understands writer’s pain very well. He also faces same pains as the writer. He doesn’t blame the writer. Otherwise, he would say that her wife was pretending. So the writer takes herself as fortunate.3. Write about the suffering and bitter experiences of John Didion as a migraine person.
Ans: In this essay, John Didion writes about migraine headache. She herself suffers from this headache. She feels quite uneasy and a strong flow of blow is fallen in the veins of her brain in the beginning. She doesn’t want to reveal. She spends one or two days a week painfully in bed. Tears come from the fight side of her face. She goes to toilet and vomits there. She wishes a surgeon would come to avoid her brain. The writer can’t speak clearly when it attacks her. She looks as if she is drunk. She tries to escape from it but she can’t. When the migraine starts, she lies on bed with patience.4. What are causes of migraine headache? And what are its effects?
Ans: Anything can start an attack of migraine headache such as stress, allergy, tiredness, unexpected events, a change in air pressure, lack of sleep, a fire drill , etc. the sufferers of migraine headache have hallucinations blinding effect, stomach problem, weakness, tiredness etc. the migraine headache also causes cold sweating and vomiting etc. But nobody dies of it.5. What are the misconceptions associated with migraine headache?
Ans: Some people believe that migraine headache is imaginary. They accuse the sufferers as if sufferers are pretending. They accuse the migraine suffers for refusing to cure themselves. They also accuse sufferers as if sufferers have wrong thinking and bad tempers. According to writer, the accusing eyes of the people are more painful for her then the migraine itself.
Unit Three : Ecology And Environment
The Nightmare Life Without Fuel – Isaac Asimov
“The Nightmare Life Without Fuel” is an essay, which depicts the life of this world in coming future when the fuel resources will have reduced from their source. The main thrust of this essay is: what is going to happen if we do not conserve the world’s natural resources. Asimov focuses on a specific problem that will arise by the lack of fuels. This whole world is run by different resources such as petrol, diesel, water, wood, etc. We cannot imagine this world without the use of fuel. In comparison to the past days, we are now facing the problem of scarcity of fuel resources. Earlier these resources were found in large quantity and life style was easier.As the fuel resources were very clear found, every sector was found running successfully and easily. Factories, industries, transportation, great organizations, etc. were in proper condition. People didn’t have problem of scarcity of fuel resources. But slowly and gradually population growth increased and brought bad consequences. Agricultural lands occupied by huge buildings and industries. The number of vehicles also increased. Due to the maximum use of the resources, human life has been in discomfort. Human beings feel that their lives are really unsecured. They always have fear that they will lose work and food. They think that they are themselves responsible for causing scarcity of resources. As they are less conscious of their future, they suffer because of the destruction of the resources. Most of them claim that they will have new resources invented. Of course, new resources such as nuclear energy and solar power have been discovered but they are very dangerous and also expensive in use. People know that their pleasures are in danger and also their future is dark. Coming generations will suffer more than us.Asimov focuses on the decreasing resources of fuel in the world. The life will be full of struggle without fuel resources. This world will slowly go dark, as less lighting bulbs will be there in the streets. Electrical appliances will be used less as there will also be scarcity of electricity. Even luxurious provisions and equipments will be impossible. More time will be taken to do simple work also as there won’t be any vehicle running in the streets. There will be difficulty in transportation and accumulation of required foodstuffs. Due to the shortage of food, people will die due to starvation and malnutrition. Due to lack of proper balanced diet, there will be problem in human brains. Child death rate will increase, as children will be deprived of proper nutritious and body building food. Specially, simple towns, suburbs will be affected much. These areas depend upon transportation for all kinds of things. They will be in danger of extinction. Every human activity will be minimized due to less light, heat, and less comfort.Security forces will also be affected badly. Without the use of weapons, military forces will be purposeless. Their work will end because they can’t work without fuel. They use scientific weapons, which are operate with fuel and are very expensive. Only the technically strong countries will be able to exercise their military power if fuel is saved in time. Factory workers will be jobless as industries and factories will be closed. So, it will be very difficult for them to provide basic needs to their family also.Only small benefits will be there due to lack of fuel. The environment will be fresh, cool and pure. Crime rates will decrease. People will understand the importance of nature and will go attached with it. People will be cooperative, as all of them will be facing same problem. They will keep themselves warm using sweaters and other thick clothes only.The writer tries to warn us from the destructive situation of this world in the coming future. If we are not serious at present only, we have to suffer a lot in the future. We must understand the importance of the nature and try to conserve it. The world is depending upon the trade and because of trade the environment is being neglected. People are living in the cities and the environment of the cities is polluted. Major population of world should be engaged to plant the trees to make a better world in future. We cannot use the solar easily and even if we use, it cannot naturally help us. But if we preserve the jungle, our environment and energy will be improved.Important Questions1. According to the Author, what will be the advantage of the fuel crisis?
Ans: The essayist talks about advantages and disadvantages of having fuel. The essayist says that the air will be pollution free if there is no fuel. There will be no new danger along the road. There will be fewer crimes. Police service will not be needed. The parks and theatres will be full of people.2. What will be the disadvantages of the fuel crisis in 1919 according to the author?
Ans: People won’t get enough light heat, water, etc. people will have to work for longer hours and they will have less time to enjoy. People will have to walk on crowded trains or buses. The babies will die of hunger and adults mind will be damaged permanently.
3. What does the author mean when he says, “The suburbs were born with the auto, lived and dying with the auto?”
Ans: People go to urban area from village area for good facilities. When cities become crowded, people start to move towards suburb areas for peace. They move to suburb areas because they can go there easily on their vehicles if there is lack of fuel, they will have difficulties. LONG QUESTION AND ANSWER FROM MEANING INTO WORDS1. Write a part of a magazine article describing your town and what visitors do there.Kathmandu is the capital of Nepal. It is located at the middle part of Nepal. There are many facilities available. Different kinds of entertainment and cultural shows are presented every day. Tourists come in Nepal, especially in Kathmandu to watch different kinds of cultural, religious and other activities of Nepali people. They select hotel or guest house as their wish and stay there. There are so many guest houses provide facilities for lodging and fooding cheaply in Kathmandu valley.Nepal is rich for natural beauty in the world. So that many tourist are attracted to see these scenery in Nepal. They pass their time walking different places such as Nagarkot, Sauraha, Pokhara, Annapurna, Sagarmatha, etc. they take photograph and buy many things those reminds Nepal forever. They watch temples those are surrounded in Kathmandu valley. They observe historical statues which are made by Malla and other kings. People are entertained disoes, bars, nightclub, etc. during the period of night and involve many activities. People watch historical, religious, natural places and recreate themselves with the fresh environment in Kathmandu.Kathmandu attracts many people every year and earns money from tourism sector. Though the least develop country Nepal invests money to promote this sector.
2. Write an essay by describing the locations of things in your room. (Unit 1)
A man lives in a society. He needs many things in his life. Food, cloth and house are his basic needs. A house protects him from heat, coldness and rain. Some people live in their own rooms and other people live in common rooms. But, I live in my own room. My room is on the second floor. It is quite big too. It is under the roof of the house. It is painted with light green colour. There are two big windows on both sides. So, my room is very bright and sunny. I have painted the windows with white colour. There is a double bed at the right corner of the room. There is a book rack by the bed. There is a table next to the book rack. A big cassette player and some textbooks are on the table. There are three chairs around it. A green carpet is on the floor. All my clothes are on the hanger which is on the door. I have used another corner of the room as a kitchen. It is at the back side of the bed. There are many pots inside the kitchen rack. A gas stove is on it. There are some pictures of famous persons, beautiful posters and a calendar on the wall. My room is in the open area. So, a beautiful scene of nature can be seen from my room. But, it has some problems. Sometimes, when the rain falls, water leaks from the roof. The glass of one window is broken. There is no glass in another window. I have covered it with plastic. There is not a fan on the ceiling. It is near the cinema hall. So, it disturbs me too much.However, my room is very comfortable. It is very beautiful. I like my room very much.
3. Write a part of a magazine article describing your town and what visitors can do there. Nepal is an underdeveloped country. There are more villages than towns in the country. The villages are mainly on the hilly regions of the country. My town is on the hilly region too. It is very beautiful. I like my town very much. The name of my town is Gorkhabazar. It is the headquarter of the district Gorkha. It is the historical place where the great king Prithvi Narayan Shah had ruled the country in the 19th century. So, it is known as the old capital of Nepal. There is a temple of Kalika on the top of a small hill. One can see very beautiful scene of green mountains and a wide range of white Himalayas from here. There is ‘Gorkha Durbar’ next to the bus park. It is also a museum but it is not open for public yet. The special things of Gorkhabazar are stone-taps, which can be found in many parts of Gorkhabazar. Although, one can wash dirty clothes and take a bath, these taps become crowded most of the times. There is a problem of water except in Haramtari. Most of the governmental offices are in Haramtari. The greatest hotel of Gorkhabazar is Hotel Bisauni. One can have delicious Nepali foods here. It is the best place for sightseeing. Although, there are many cheap hotels and guesthouses where one can spend nights and take foods or drinks, the services provided by them are not satisfactory one. Although, it is a municipality, there are not good facilities of roads, irrigations, communications and hospitals.
4. Write a short magazine article, entitled ‘A day in the life of yours’.
A man lives in a society. He comes into contact with different kinds of persons. He does different kinds of works within a day. What a man does within a single day is known as a daily routine. Everyone has his own type of daily routine, which is different from other persons. I have my own daily routine. This is described as follows- My name is Kedar Adhikari. I live at Tandibazar in Chitwan with my family. I am a student. I study at Nepal Higher Secondary School in the class 11 of management faculty. Usually, I get up at five o’clock early in the morning. Then, I go to toilet, brush my teeth and wash my face. I often eat bread or fried rice as a morning snack. At 5:20, I wear my school uniform and keep my textbooks into my bag and go to the school on my bicycle. I reach the school at quarter to six. Some of my friends have already come there. I talk with them. Our first class begins at 6 o’clock and the last class ends at quarter to 10 o’clock. I return from the school and change my uniform. I take my breakfast. Usually, I take dal, bhat and tarkari as breakfast. I often take milk and pickle. After this, I start studying my textbooks and doing my homeworks for three hours. Sometimes, when I feel bored, I watch TV or listen to radio. At 2 o’clock, I take snack lunch. About half past four, I often go to my friend’s house. Sometimes, we play volleyball or football or chess. Sometimes, we go to see cinemas. Sometimes, we go for sightseeing. Sometimes, we go for a walk. I return home about seven o’clock and eat dinner. I eat dal, bhat and tarkari as dinner. Sometimes, I take bananas or slices of cucumber. Then, I study for 2 hours. Sometimes, I watch TV or listen to radio and go to bed about 10 o’clock. . Twice a year, I go outside the district to see many beautiful parts of the country. My father works in a travel agency. Many tourists come to visit Nepal from the different parts of the foreign country and I have to take them to visit the beautiful towns of the country.5. Imagine that, 50 years from now, someone in your class is very famous. Write an account of his/her life.
People work hard. All the people cannot get success in their lives. But, very few of them get so much success that they became very famous in the whole country. In our class, there is a student. His name is Saroj Neupane. After 50 years from now, he became a famous doctor. He was born in a very poor family in 2045. His parents were poor farmers. There were six children in their house. Sometimes, they slept without eating anything. The parents didn’t have money to send Saroj in school. First of all, Saroj worked in a rich man’s house as a servant. In the mornings and evenings, he used to do house works but in the daytimes, he used to go to school. He was a very hard working student. He stood first every year. He passed SLC with distinction in 2061. In I.Sc., he became board third and he went to India to study medicine under Colombo plan. After eight years, he became an optician. He married a beautiful girl after two years. By the end of 2115, he became very famous doctor. He lived at Kuleshore in Kathmandu. He worked in Teaching Hospital. Besides that, he worked in many nursing homes. He himself established a nursing home at Kalimati. His majesty the government of Nepal had awarded him as “Outstanding Youth of 2062”. He has got many awards including Gorkha Dakshinbahu from the king. He has earned so much popularity that the people come from far and wide to meet him.
6. Write an account of the most important events in your country’s history, and when they happened.
One of the most important events of Nepal is the establishment of democracy in 2007 B.S. The cruel Ranas were ruling the country. They were very selfish. They might kill anyone who disliked them. They did not let the common people to go to schools for reading and writing. They used to pass their time very luxuriously. There was no freedom for speaking too. The late king Tribhuwan decided to overthrow such cruel rule of Ranas from the country. He went to India to get help from the Indian government. With the help from Nepali Congress, he began an armed movement. Many people died and became wounded. Mohan Shamser made Gyanendra as the King of Nepal. But the government of India did not accept Gyanendra as the king of Nepal. Finally, there was held treaty among, three groups i.e. the king Tribhuwan, the representatives of Ranas and Nepali Congress. They decided to establish democracy in Nepal. This treaty is called Delhi treaty. Democracy was established on 7 Falgun¸ 2007 BS. Tribhuwan was made the king of Nepal. He made a joint government and decided to bring into force a democratic constitution. In this way, the rule of Ranas, which had begun from 1903 BS, came to an end after 104 years. The people of Nepal became very happy. The first democratic constitution was announced on 17 Chaitra, 2007 BS. There was happiness everywhere. All the restrictions imposed upon political parties were released. The people become free from the cruel chains of Ranas. They got freedom for speaking and writing too.
7. Write a letter to a friend describing a difficult situation you are going through at the moment. Kathmandu-12, 17 April, 2016Dear Prakash, I got your letter on 16 April. Thank you very much for remembering me so much. These days, I am not feeling very happy because I have badly wounded one of my eyes in an accident. It was the accident of 2 days ago. It was a very hot day. I was taking a rest with my friends after playing football on a ground. Our body smelled badly because of sweat. So, we decided to go to the Narayani river for swimming. Taking off our clothes, we dived into the river. The river was deep enough for swimming. We were playing ‘hide and seek’ game in the water. While playing the game, I decided to dive into the river from a height. I wanted to show my courage to my friends. When I was just about to dive, I felt dizzy and fell from the height and I injured one of my eyes badly and then I was hospitalized. Although the doctor has said that the eyes can be cured, it will cost 5 lakhs rupees for the operation. He has said if the operation is not done on time, it will also affect another eye and I will become blind. I am quite worried by thinking that my poor father will not be able to collect the money within one month. We have no land for selling. Can you tell me any way to come out of this difficult situation? Convey my regards to your papa and mama. I hope you are quite fine there with your family members. This much for today. I will write more in my next letter. Yours faithfully, Gopal Shrestha
8. Write a letter to a friend telling him/her what your plans are for the next 12 months. Tandibazar, Chitwan 17 April, 2016Dear Sunita, I got your letter on 16 April. I became very happy as I got it after a long time. Here, I am quite fine. I hope you are also fine there. As you had asked me to write my plans for the next twelve months, I am going to write about them in short. First, I will study very hard to pass the examination, which is coming very near. After that, there will be summer vacation in our school. I think I will go to visit many beautiful cities of my country. Then, I will join class 12. At Dashain and Tihar festival, I will go to my own house. I will enjoy the festivals by playing swing and cards. After this, our school will reopen. In the winter vacation, I will go to Kathmandu to check my eye. Sometimes, tear comes from my eyes while studying textbooks. After the winter vacation, when our school opens again, there will be many extracurricular activities. I think I will take part in essay writing and volleyball tournament. If I passed the examination, I would go to Kathmandu for further study. This much for today. I will write more for the next time. Yours faithfully, Binita Poudel9. Write an essay on “Television”.
The scientists of the world are inventing many kinds of modern technologies, which have made our lives quite easier. Among many such modern inventions, a television is the most important invention of modern science. Television is becoming popular day by day. A black and white television is much cheaper than a colour television. Although, television gives a lot of information, it may be harmful especially for children. It makes the environment of a house very bad. One forgets to do one’s daily works. It makes the people very passive. Sometimes, television shows obscene scenes and broadcasts false news that affects onlookers negatively. There are so many advantages of television. One can watch and listen to news, informative and entertaining programmers on a television. One can get practically lots of information and entertainments from television. Television is a friend of loneliness. One can know the incidents happened all over the world just by sitting in one’s own single room. One should not watch television more than necessary. One should watch television, only after completing one’s duties and works. In conclusion, television is a curse as well as a boon. If we misuse it, it will be a curse. If we use it properly, it will be a boon.
10. Write a short letter of application, including information about what you are good at. Damak-5, Jhapa 17 September, 2016ToThe Headmaster,Nepal Higher Secondary School,Tandi, Chitwan. Subject: Application for the post of a primary teacher.
Dear Sir, I wish to apply for the post of a primary teacher advertised in yesterday’s newspaper “The Kathmandu Post”. I am sixteen years old and I have just passed SLC examination in the second division from Narayani High School of Chitwan choosing education as an extra optional subject. I have taught in many schools as a volunteer. I have a good knowledge about methods of teaching for children. I have got also recognitions from the concerned schools. I am good at teaching and drawing pictures. I have enclosed herewith my testimonials. You can have further information from the headmaster of Narayani High School. If the opportunity is given, I will do my best to ensure you the utmost satisfaction.Yours faithfully,Keshav Shrestha
11. Write a letter to a relative, asking for loan, and explaining why you need the money.
Kirtipur-12, Kathmandu 17 June, 2016
Dear Uncle, I got your letter yesterday. I became very happy as I got the news of the house from your letter. I have been passing my days in normal ways. There is not anything especial news here. But one problem has come upon me. As my examination is beginning from the middle of next month, I am studying very hard these days. I have taken tuition for English. But I have no money. Even my father does not have any money at the present time. Uncle, please send me three thousand rupees with Kailash who will come here the next week. I have to buy some important textbooks and pay the rent of my room and the tuition fee. I will pay it back as soon as possible. I hope my nephew Rajendra and niece Srijana are doing best in their studies. Rajendra wants to play more. Please advise him politely from time to time. Convey my regards to Rajesh uncle and Rita aunt too. I am quite well. I hope you are quite well over there. I will come back after my examination. This much for today.Yours respectfully,Saroj Chaudhari
12. Tell the story of a time when you had a narrow escape.
It was an incident of two years ago. All of my friends had learnt to drive a motorcycle. But I hadn’t learnt yet. Sometimes, the friends used to come to meet me. They talked about the enjoyments they get by driving different types of motorcycles. They taught me about the theoretical knowledge about the ways of driving a motorcycle. I had become quite interested in driving it, but I had not got any chance. I was quite busy in those days, as my final examination had come very near. One day, I saw my uncle’s motorcycle on the side of a road. I looked around but I saw no one. Finding a golden chance, I started the motorcycle and drove it comfortably at first, though I was feeling quite nervous. I was not quite used to driving a motorcycle. I pressed the accelerator. To my fear, the motorcycle went ahead suddenly. I hardly control it. Suddenly, I saw a car coming towards me. I lost my sense. I turned the motorcycle to the wrong side. I almost hit the car and fell into a dirty lake with the motorcycle. The lake was near the road. There came my aunt, other relatives and friends. My whole body had become very ugly because of dirty water. They started laughing by looking at me. There came my uncle too and he used very angry languages to me. I had driven his motorcycle without his permission. I did not know that the motorcycle was on gear. Fortunately, any parts of the motorcycle had not broken. If there was not the pool, I would certainly die. I give thanks to the god for this luck.
13. Write a letter home describing life in your new accommodation. Kathmandu-16 Dec.29, 2016
Dear Papa and Mama, I came here exactly at 4 o’clock in the afternoon after taking a bus from Gorkhabazar at one o’clock. Now, I am living at Tandibazar. It is a small town I have taken a room in rent. It is behind my school. It is as big as our living room. It faces the east. So, it is very sunny. There are two big windows in my room. I have to walk just five minutes to reach the school from my room. The toilet and bathroom are separate. But, there is the problem of water. The water comes early in the morning and late in the evening. If the water is not filled in those times, the clothes cannot be washed and pots cannot be cleaned. The landlord and landlady are very friendly. Here isn’t any telephone facility. But, my landlord has filled application for telephone. I hope the telephone will be installed very soon. The rules and regulations of the house are very strict. Everybody should clean the toilet and the bathroom everyday and the house once a week. The dirts should be thrown into a pit. No one is allowed to come inside and go outside the house after nine o’clock in the evening and to drink beer inside it. I have to walk on foot for 5 minutes to reach my school. The bus station is on 5 minutes walk. I hope you are quite fine. Convey my regards to my uncle, aunt and other neighbors. This much for today.Yours affectionately, 14. Write a story about someone whose plans went horribly wrong.
I have many friends. One of my friend’s names is Krishna Pokhrel. He is very much ambitious. He always makes great plans. He is a handsome youth, but he is very poor in his studies. He doesn’t like to do any kinds of hard works, but he wants to eat tasty foods. Although, he is very poor, he wears very expensive shoes and clothes. Once, he told me his secret plan that went horribly wrong. Once, he said that he had fallen in love with a girl. She belonged to a rich family. Her name was Sharita. It seemed that he didn’t know anything about Sharita. He had lied that he worked in an INGO and he had passed MBA from Tribhuwan University. It seemed that Sharita had easily believed every word of Krishna. She was the only daughter of her parents. Krishna used to tell me that he would marry her and he would be a millionaire. He always talked about going for traveling to America, Britain, Italy and Germany. He talked about modern facilities like television, computer, fridge or the things like those. Once, he did not meet her for two months. He made telephone calls to her but he got the message that she had gone to her maternal uncle’s house. One day, he found her inside a restaurant. To his surprise, he found her married and talking with her new husband in a romantic way. There was a tilahari on her neck andsindur on her parting.
15. Write a review article for a newspaper of a recent film that you have seen.
One afternoon, my friend asked me to go to watch a film. I went with him to watch a Nepali feature film “Gorkhali” which had been showing from fifteen days ago. The film is about the victory of honesty. Except one, all other songs are not very good. The story of the film is very weak. No mother sends her son to a big city if there is no certainty of lodging and food. The hero goes to Kathmandu although his lodging and food are not quite certain. The film has not presented the realistic picture of a society. A friend of the hero, a pickpocket after some time makes his living by opening a new momo shop. The hero advises him to make an honest living. On the other side, the film presents a conflict between the poor hero and the rich heroine. Finally, the hero becomes successful in winning the heart of the heroine. The film gives a moral lesson that a man should be honest in his work and life. The director has presented a new heroine. Her acting is not very bad. She does not look as a good dancer like the hero. But, the film is full of humorous and romantic scenes, which has made the film quite interesting. It is a commercial film as it has used many commercial elements to make it quite interesting.
16. Write an essay on “Living in the Country”
The people who are living in the country are very happy. They are very honest, helpful and hard working. They are very near to the nature. The environment of the country is very clean. The people take fresh air, eat fresh vegetables and drink pure milk. So, they are very healthy, strong and active. The sweet sound of waterfalls or the bird-cuckoo, the white Himalayas above the green mountain can be found in the country. So, it is very beautiful like a heaven. Most of people are farmers in the country. They don’t know how to cheat someone. So, they are honest. Although, they earn very little money to keep their children, they are always seen smiling happily. They don’t like any kinds of modern things. They use traditional ways of farming. Most of them are illiterate. They are very poor for money but they are very rich for kindness and help. Usually, they get up at 6 o’clock, milk their cows or buffaloes, plough their field, dig their farms and then return their home late in the evening by working very hard. They are very tired. In Nepal, most of the people are farmers. Nepal depends on agriculture. The farmers live in remote areas of the country. They are below the poverty line. The government is trying to develop villages, but there are not modern facilities yet. The lives of villagers are very difficult.By living in the village, a person doesn’t know modern things. His mind is very narrow. He does not want to become a great man in his life. Playing cards, drinking beer & chewing tobacco are bad things, which are found in the village. The youths should try to remove those bad things. If the government makes good hospitals, schools, universities in the village, and if it has modern facilities like electricity, telephone, drinking water and irrigation, then the living in the village will be very good. If we don’t develop the village, we cannot develop our nation. So, we all should try to develop our village. We should not hope that only government should develop the village. The young and old people should be active to remove the bad things of their villages. Only then, after some years, our Nepal will be a beautiful Nepal.
17. Write an essay on the “Position of Women in Nepal”
There are more than 50 percent of women in the total population of Nepal. But the people think women are very weak. They have become the servants of their husbands. The society of Nepal is very narrow. The daughters are not sent to schools. They are taught to do farming works. But women can do many great things. She is an ocean of love and kindness. If opportunities are given, she can become even a prime minister of a country not only a single housewife of a husband. Most of the women of Nepal are hated. The husbands think that women are like dolls. Women are not sent to schools. They are not allowed to have good jobs. But they are sent to cut grasses, to look after cattle and to do farming works. If a young girl walks with a young boy freely, the people think she is a bad girl. The girls don’t get any kinds of freedom. The women think they are weak but men are brave. So women don’t like to do great thing in their life. The girls are taught so that they can be married to a better house nor that they have a good job. When a daughter is born in a house, the parents become very sad. She is not given any suitable opportunities. She must live in a controlled discipline. The position of women in Nepal is very dim. Some of the women are forced to sell their body in Bombay for money. They become prostitutes. Some of them are raped by cruel young boys. When a newly married woman goes to a new house, she cannot get any helps from her husband and the other family members of the house. They give many troubles to her. As she tries to win the heart of her husband, she becomes unsuccessful. Nowadays, more and more women are educated. They have started to raise their voices against their bad husbands. Now, there are womens’ organizations to look after their problems. The wide spread knowledge and communication have brought a great change in women. Some of them have reached the high post also. The government has given special importance for the development of womens’ level. Day by day, they are going ahead. The society should help to go them ahead.
18. Write an essay about the strange dream that you have seen or heard recently. A man should do many kinds of works in a whole day. He becomes very tired after doing a lot works. He has to take a rest. So, he goes to sleep in his bed. When he sleeps he may see a dream, which is strange or normal. From a dream we can know what a man wants.Yesterday night, I saw a strange dream as I slept after having my dinner. In the dream, I was flying in the sky. As I went flying I landed on the top of a hill. It was covered by thick forest. It was completely unknown to me. I wanted to go to my house. I had one very important thing to do there. If I had not reached there on time, a very bad thing would happen. So, I climbed down the hill quickly. At the bottom it, there was a big and deep river. I could not cross it. I became very sad. Why did I come in such a remote place? I thought the family members were waiting for me. But I had lived here being unable to cross the river. What were they saying to me? Thinking in this way I became very sad. Suddenly, a crocodile came towards me. He didn’t attack and eat me up. He loved me very much. So, I also caught many big fish of the river easily and gave to the crocodile to eat. He became very happy. Then, I sat on his back and the crocodile swam across the river. But I slid from his back and fell into the deep river. Deep in the river, I found a very beautiful house of water-king and water-queen. They were man to the top but fish to the bottom. The king and queen welcomed me happily. They had a beautiful daughter. When they touched her with a magic stick, she changed into a beautiful lady. I liked her very much. I had never seen such a beautiful lady in my life. I said that I had fallen in love with her. She also said so. I was able to speak. The king and the queen married their daughter with me. When the marriage was over, she and I went to a very beautiful room with a soft bed. When she closed the door, I woke and found myself in my own room. My mother was calling me. This was the strange dream, which I never forget in my life.
19. Write a story by describing an incident of your serious illness.
The body of a man is made of many parts. All the parts of a body should work well for a good health. If one part doesn’t work well, a man becomes ill. To be ill, is a normal thing. For a good health, a man should take pure water and clean foods. He should take bath regularly. In spite of these things, one may become ill. I had become very ill when I was 10 years old. I was playing football match with my friends in a big ground. It was a cold afternoon of December. The sky was covered by dark clouds. Suddenly, rain started falling. But we didn’t stop playing. We played for one hour in the heavy rain. We won the match. Then, I returned the house and changed my dress. After having dinner, I slept in my bed. I was not feeling well. I had a fever of 100º. As the night grew, the fever went higher. My father, mother and other family members came into my room and looked after me very carefully. I took some tablets of paracetamol, but the fever didn’t become less. My mother put wet handkerchief on my forehead. Our house was in a remote village of Nepal. The hospital was very far. There were not good doctors in the hospital. My father went to call a local health assistant. He came and checked me. I came to know that I had pneumonia. He gave some advices. There was so much pain in my head that I wanted to cut it off if it was possible. Next morning, I was sent to a hospital on a stretcher of a thick cloth. As I reached the hospital, I became unconscious. I didn’t know what happened after this. Later my parents told me that I was given four bottles of saline. I was kept in the emergency ward .The local doctors, some health assistants and nurses helped me for the treatment. They told me that they had lost hope. I had lung problem. My parents had prayed for the God for my good health. Perhaps, the God knew the problems. After six hours, as I became conscious, I found myself in the bed of the hospital. The doctor and the nurses were smiling happily. After living in the hospital for four days, I returned back to the house.
20. If you have ever had the experience of putting your pied in your bouche, recount it and it’s consequences.
A man is not perfect. He can do many mistakes in his life while speaking, writing or doing things. It is a human nature. But a man should not do the same mistake again .If he does the same mistake again, he does not become a good man. So, a man should be very careful in his actions and speeches. I lived in a small town of Nepal. My older brother had gone to Britain for a job. After passing S.L.C exam, I joined a university but I couldn’t pass the university exam. I tried very hard to get some job but I didn’t get any one. So I decided to open a new cassette recording centre. For this I needed a good cassette player. My brother was returning to Nepal after some months. So, one day I made a telephone call to him and asked him to bring “cats set”. He said yes. So I prepared for taking a room in rent in the center of the market. I bought many necessary things for my new business of opening a new cassette-recording centre. On the day of coming of my brother, I went to the airport with my friends to welcome him. I had proudly told them that my brother is bringing me a new big cassette player. The airplane arrived one hour later. When the brother came out of the airport building, I asked where the box of cassette player was. Then, he gave me a beautiful box in which the thing that I wanted was packed in attractive ways. “Look friends! This good cassette player is sent to me by my brother. Do you have such cassette player? No, you don’t have”. Saying so, I opened the box.”You’re lucky brother”, one of them said. But when I opened the box, two white cats got up from their seats and made sounds looking towards us. “Hello! Brother. I had asked you to bring a new “cassette”, but why did you bring “cats?” I asked him surprisingly.”You had asked me to bring “cats set”. I understood you love keeping cats. So, I brought two white cats or cat’s set. “Cat’s set ‘ or ‘cassette’?” I asked sadly.”You said ‘cat’s set’ not a cassette player on the telephone.”
Hearing this, my friends laughed at me. I realized that I had done a great mistake. I had to say cassette player. But my English was very poor. So I made a mistake. I said “cat’s set” for “cassette player”. As we returned home in a car, I was thinking about this mistake and the importance of English language. Now, I decided not to open a new cassette recording center.
Q.21 Write a short physical description about your pen-friend.
I have got a pen-friend. His name is John Smith. He lives in America. He is 16 years old. He is very healthy and he weighs 55 kg. His colour of skin is brown. He has got black eyes, which are quite big. He keeps moustache, but he has no beard. He has a white set of teeth. He has got attractive smile and charming voice. When he laughs, dimples fall on the both sides of his cheeks. Similarly, he has got golden colour of hair with center parting. Unfortunately, his face is full of marks of acnes. But he is helpful, kind and friendly. He studies very hard in a university. He has a good sense of humour too. Everybody loves him very much and I also like him very much.
Q.22 Write a short description about the wedding ceremony that you have seen.
It was the end of December. The date of the marriage of my sister was fixed. As my father asked me to help him to buy necessary things needed for marriage, I became quite busy from a few days before the marriage. The relatives started coming. On the day of marriage, a group of friends of my sister came and made her up beautifully. I was busy in preparing food items and doing other necessary works. The procession came at 11:00 o’clock. First of all, the worksof swayambarbegan. As the time passed all the works of marriage came to an end. My sister was wearing a dark coloured Banarashi Sari and brother-in-law was wearing a black suit. Our house was decorated richly with different colours of papers and lights. Sweet Hindi and Nepali filmy songs were played in a big cassette player. Finally, when my sister was to be sent off, she wept sadly . I carried her on my back and put her on the seat of a car. As I returned back from there, I became quite sad. I thought someone had gone somewhere forever.
Q.23 Make a dialogue between two friends about the marriage of one relative.
(Ram and Hari are two close friends of a campus. When it is a tiffin time, they go to the canteen of the campus and start talking in their own way.) Ram: Is your sister ill? She isn’t coming campus these days Hari: No, she isn’t. She’s got married Ram: Really! I didn’t know about that. Why didn’t she invite me?Hari: As decision was made quickly, only few guests were invited.Ram: When was it?Hari: The day before yesterdayRam: I’d gone to your house that day, but it was lockedHari: The wedding took place in a temple.Ram: Oh! I see. Why is she getting married so early?Hari: It was my father’s decision.Ram: Will she continue her studies after her wedding?Hari: Yes I think so.Ram: I’m in a hurry today. Good-bye. See you tomorrow.Hari: Good-bye.
Q.24. Write a short geographical description of Nepal. Nepal is a land locked country. It is situated in the south Asia. It is surrounded by two big countries-India and China. It is a constitutional monarchial and democratic state. It is made up of 75 districts and 14 zones. The capital city is Kathmandu, which is in the central part of the country. Nepal has the total area of 1, 47,181 square kilometers and a population of about 23 million. Geographically, Nepal can be divided into three regions. They are described below.a) Himalayan Region: – This region extends from east to the west, which is located on the northern part of the country. It is covered by snow. It covers 15% of the land area. The highest mountain Mt. Everest that is 8848 metres high lies here. Most of the big rivers begin from this region. It is the least developed region. The climate is very cold. The people of this region wear thick clothes made of wool. The castes of people like Bhote, Tamang, Sherpa live here. They eat foods made of buckwheat and potatoes.b)Mountainous Region: – This region is situated between Himalayan region and Terai Region. It covers 68% of the land area. Most of the valleys, and beautiful lakes are situated in this region. It is rich in wild animals also. The climate is temperate here. The people of this region are farmers and they are illiterate also. It is less developed region. The people like Brahmin, Chherti, Newar live here. c)Terai Region: – This region is situated to the southern part of Nepal. It covers 17% of land area which is a vast land of plain. Most of the big cities like Biratnagar, Dharan,Janakpur, and Nepalgang are located here. The region has modern facilities like electricity, telephone, irrigation and transportation. The region has very fertile land area. So it is called ‘The breadbasket of Nepal’. The climate is very hot here. The people are quite educated.